Guide to Affordable Master’s and Doctorate Psychology Programs
Welcome to MastersinPsychology.com. We connect you to the psychology degree program that works best for you, enabling you to further your education and achieve your career goals. The structure of our site is simple, yet thorough. We feature comprehensive lists of schools in the United States that offer master’s and doctorate degrees in psychology. All of the lists are ranked by affordability. You can use the main toolbar or the table of contents above to directly search by state, subject, or top 25 most affordable programs. The map on this page can also be used to search by state. A summary of each of the psychology branches/degree types is highlighted below. Be sure to check out our ongoing podcasts and blog posts that present useful, edifying psychology material with a personal approach. The primary goal of the Master’s in Psychology Podcast is to help psychology students learn from those who are in the industry including psychologists, psychiatrists, psychology professors, and more.
The career outlook in the field of psychology is good. Many resources suggest that psychology jobs and careers are on the rise and more people will be needed to fill these positions. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics states that there were 181,700 psychologist jobs in 2018, and that this number will increase 14% from 2018 to 2028. This means that over 26,000 more jobs will become available between 2018 to 2028, and they state that this is “much faster than average.” There are hundreds of colleges and universities. There are thousands of degree programs. Which one is right for you? We can help you. Take a look around our site. We have what you need.
Psychology Degrees by State
Psychology Branches and Degree Types
There are many different degree types/categories/branches/fields/areas of specialization of psychology, however, most believe there are anywhere from 4 to 15 branches of psychology or more. For your convenience, here is a list of some of the branches of psychology.
- Abnormal Psychology
- Applied Psychology
- Behavioral Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Community Psychology
- Counseling Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Educational Psychology
- Experimental Psychology
- Evolutionary Psychology
- Forensic Psychology
- General Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Industrial Organizational Psychology
- Legal Psychology
- Personality Psychology
- School Psychology
- Social Psychology
Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that studies abnormal or unusual behavior, thoughts, or emotions. It focuses on gaining a better understanding of the variety of psychological disorders which affect human behavior and cause psychopathology. Most definitions of abnormal psychology include the idea that the abnormal psychologist is concerned with understanding the individual pathologies of the mind, behavior, mood, or emotions. The key is that these pathologies of thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are considered “abnormal” or “atypical”.
There are many ways to define “abnormal” or “atypical” and they may differ based on the culture, age, location, and expected norms of the respective society. However, abnormal psychologists scientifically study and classify the behavior, thoughts, or emotions along the well-known bell-shaped curve. Abnormal psychologists who participate in research can apply statistical criteria to behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. As such, they can determine if these are statistically significant compared to the majority of people (e.g., they look at how many standard deviations from the norm the behaviors, thoughts, or emotions fall). Those behaviors which cluster in the middle are considered “normal” while those which fall on either of the extreme ends are considered abnormal.
It is important to recognize that within the field of abnormal psychology, those behaviors considered normal and those considered abnormal are not synonymous with right or wrong. Rather, abnormal psychologists are concerned with how these “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors cause distress for the person, their friends, family, or society. Furthermore, if these behaviors cause irrational or harmful behavior to self or others, then the abnormal psychologist would be brought in to better understand, diagnose, and treat these behaviors.
In addition to using the statistical significance (deviation from the norm), distress, or harmful behavior to self or others (maladaptive behavior) as criteria for defining abnormality in psychology, the desirability of the behavior can also be used to determine if it is considered “abnormal” or “atypical”. For example, those with a high IQ (considered a genius) are statistically significantly different from those considered normal, however, most people would not view geniuses as abnormal in a negative way. On the other hand, those with an IQ on the lower extreme of the bell-shaped curve usually have lower cognitive abilities and are viewed as less desirable and may cause some discomfort and distress for those around them. Similarly, Tourette Syndrome (TS) belongs to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental conditions referred to as Tic Disorders. Some Tic Disorders are barely noticeable and can be transient while others are more noticeable and can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, those which are more noticeable may be considered more “abnormal” and cause discomfort or distress.
Abnormal psychologists may take various approaches when treating the abnormal or unusual behavior, thoughts, or emotions. Some psychologists may take the behavioral approach by focusing on the observable behaviors and reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing negative or maladaptive behaviors. Other psychologists may take a more cognitive approach by focusing on changing the person’s thoughts, perceptions, reactions, and reasoning in order to change their behavior. Another group of psychologists may take a psychoanalytic approach which takes its roots from Sigmund Freud and suggests that abnormal behaviors may stem from desires, memories, or unconscious thoughts. The belief is that these feelings influence conscious actions. Still other psychologists may take a biological (or medical) approach by looking at the underlying causes of the disorders like chemical imbalance, genetics, or medical conditions.
Similar to other types of psychologists, some abnormal psychologists work in clinical settings such as hospitals, clinics, or mental health facilities. Others work in a university or college setting or in research facilities. Those who work in the research arena typically focus their research on a particular psychological disorder (or group of disorders). Those who work in higher education usually teach and may conduct research. Abnormal psychology falls more under the theoretical and experimental branches of psychology (as opposed to the applied branch), therefore, you may not find many working in private practice.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is considered the standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America. It is currently in its fifth edition and is known as DSM-5. The DSM-5 includes three main sections: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text. Another reference used by abnormal psychologists (especially in other parts of the world) is the ICD-10 which has been used by World Health Organization (WHO) member states since 1994. In particular, chapter five includes around 300 mental and behavioral disorders. Indeed, chapter five of the ICD-10 was influenced by previous versions of the DSM-5, therefore, you will find a great deal of similarities between the two.
Applied psychology is a field which applies psychological methods, principles, and scientific findings to real-world problems of human and animal behavior. In other words, it puts practical research into action. Applied psychologists focus more on the implementation of real-world results versus abstract theories and lab experiments.
Many psychologists believe there are two main types of psychology: experimental psychology and applied psychology. Experimental psychology focuses primarily on research, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations). In particular, an applied psychologist will look at existing research and use it to solve problems in such settings as the workplace, health environment, legal/law enforcement, and the clinical environment. Some of the other branches of applied psychology include industrial/organizational (I/O), sports, forensic, educational, political, military, and consumer.
It is important to remember that applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results. Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology.
Applied psychologists must not only have a good working knowledge of the experimental method (make observations, form an hypothesis, make a prediction [or multiple predictions], develop and perform an experiment to test the prediction[s], analyze and interpret the results, draw a conclusion, and report your results), they must also be able to apply this method to real-life situations instead of laboratory experiments/laboratory environment. Furthermore, applied psychologists must also feel comfortable working with, and speaking to, individuals, groups, and the public as they often need to persuade and educate them regarding their work. They must be able to create organize their thoughts and have strong writing skills which are necessary for creating proposals and reports. In addition, applied psychologists must know how to effectively communicate with their subjects in order to elicit honest and natural behaviors and feedback.
Applied psychology encompasses a wide range of activities from laboratory experiments to field studies to direct clinical services for individuals, couples, groups, and organizations. Applied psychology has broadened since its early beginnings when it simply looked at testing and teaching methods to stress performance to evaluation of attitudes, morale, and feelings. Applied psychology will continue to broaden and expand as new experimental findings become available and as new problems arise. Students interested in continuing their education in applied psychology can visit our list of the most affordable applied psychology graduate programs and resources.
Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology which focuses on studying observable human behaviors and the methods of acquiring and changing those behaviors through conditioning. Behavioral psychology is often referred to as behaviorism. The behavioral approach, taken by behaviorists, involves studying behavior in a systematic and observable manner to better understand how interaction with the environment determines behavior. Behaviorism assumes that all learning occurs through interactions with the surrounding environment and that the environment shapes behavior. As a result, according to this school of thought, only observable behavior should be considered. In other words, behaviorists do not consider emotions, moods, or cognitions because these are far too subjective.
Behavior analysis is also based on the foundations of behaviorism including utilizing learning principles to bring about behavior changes. Therefore, those who study behavioral psychology may also get involved with one, or both, of the two major areas of behavior analysis (experimental and applied). Experimental behavior analysis is research that is focused on adding to the body of knowledge about behavior. On the other hand, applied behavior analysis is research that is focused on applying these behavior principles to the real world (i.e., real life situations). For example, those focused on applied behavior analysis may apply the principles to help adults or children learn new behaviors or replace negative or problem behaviors. Others may apply the principles to help people with disabilities improve their behavior, increase their academic skills, or improve employee performance.
Because behavior analysis focuses on the behavior (and not the underlying cognitions or mentalistic causes of behavior), it is unique in the field of psychology. In fact, Division 25 of the American Psychology Association (APA) is devoted solely to the area of behavior analysis. In particular, Division 25 explains that the name of their organization “shall be the Division of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, a Division of the American Psychological Association.” Furthermore, they state that one of the purposes of the organization shall be “to promote experimental studies, both basic and applied, in the experimental analysis of behavior…” This corresponds with much of the research available which shows there are basically three different ways to analyze behavior. First, you can study behavior through experimental investigation. Second, you can use applied behavior analysis which means you apply what researchers know about behavior and apply it to real-world situations. Third, you can use conceptual analysis of behavior to address the historical, philosophical, theoretical and methodological issues of behavior analysis.
Behavioral psychology is often linked to cognitive psychology as the field examines theories of human learning and behavior like conditioning theories, social learning theories, and other models of information processing. Behavioral psychologists use empirical (observable) data along with theories of human behavior, cognition, and learning.
Those who follow the theories behind strict behaviorism believe that almost any person (or animal) can be trained to perform any job or task no matter their personality traits, background, or thoughts. Strict behaviorists believe it only requires the right conditioning. Within behavioral psychology, conditioning is a theory which states that a reaction to an object or event can be learned or modified. The reaction is the “response” while the object or event is the “stimulus” and can be by a person or an animal. In other words, conditioning theory states that a response to a stimulus by an animal or person can be modified by learning (or conditioning).
There are two main types of conditioning under this school of thought (classical conditioning and operant conditioning). Classical conditioning is a learning process that involves a neutral (environmental) stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. The conditioning (learning) occurs when the neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus then, eventually, the neutral stimulus evokes the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus even when the naturally occurring stimulus is absent. One of the best known classical conditioning experiments was done by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who decided to conditioning when he discovered that his dog subjects began to salivate not only when food (or meat powder) was given to them but they also began to salivate (even more) when the person who was feeding them came close to them without even seeing the food. To simplify and better understand this, we need to understand the terms Unconditioned Stimulus (US) or Neutral Stimulis (NS), Unconditioned Response (UR), Conditioned Stimulus (CS), and Conditioned Response (CR). At the beginning of his experiments (i.e., before conditioning) we can have an Unconditioned or Neutral Stimulus (person arriving to feed the dogs). At first the person arriving to feed the dogs did not elicit a gastric response (the dogs did not begin salivating). The Unconditioned Response was the dogs not salivating. However, during the conditioning, the dogs learned to associate the person arriving to feed them with the food itself. By the end of the experiments (i.e., after conditioning), the Conditioned Stimulus becomes the person arriving to feed the dogs which then stimulates the Conditioned Response (salivation). For those who have never owned a dog, please know that the gastric response of salivation normally is a reflex which happens to help aid digestion when the dog sees their food. However, as a result of this classical conditioning, the dogs now start salivating at the sight of the person who feeds them. Other experiments associated a bell or whistle when feeding the dogs (i.e., just before feeding the dogs, they would ring a bell or blow a whistle). Therefore, after conditioning occurs, the dogs would start salivating after hearing the bell or whistle (without actually seeing their food).
Operant conditioning is a learning process that involves reinforcements and punishments so that an association is made between a behavior and a consequence of that behavior. If a behavior is followed by a positive or favorable result, then that behavior is reinforced and is more likely to happen again in the future. On the other hand, if a behavior is followed by a negative or unfavorable result, then that behavior is punished and is less likely to happen again in the future. Operant conditioning is sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning. One of the best known operant conditioning experiments was done by behaviorist B.F. Skinner when he carried out experiments with caged rats in his ”operant conditioning chamber” (“Skinner’s Box”). The rats learned that if they pressed on a lever, they would receive food (i.e., food would automatically be released for them). Reinforcement played a key role as they learned they would receive food whenever they pressed on the lever. An experiment which would fall under instrumental conditioning would be Edward Thorndike’s experiments involving placing cats in a puzzle box. In this experiment, he placed the reward (fish) outside of the puzzle box as the incentive. In order to get out of the puzzle box, the cats had to learn to undue a latch. At first, the cats couldn’t escape the box but eventually realized that undoing the latch freed them and gave them access to the fish. They then decreased the amount of time they spent trapped in the box by learning that the same action (undoing the latch) would give them their freedom and their reward. Thorndike termed this conditioning as the “Law of Effect” which resulted in the “stamping in” of a particular behavior (i.e., opening of the latch would be reinforced). On the other hand, if the cats were punished as a result of leaving the puzzle box then the behavior would be “stamped out” (i.e., opening the latch would punished and become less frequent).
Though both operant conditioning and classical conditioning are learning processes, the key difference between the two is that operant conditioning creates an association based on the subject’s behavior and the effect or outcome it generates (e.g., rat presses a lever to receive a reward or a cat opening a latch to receive a reward). On the other hand, classical conditioning is concerned primarily with the behavior itself and how the behavior is learned (e.g., dogs salivating when the person enters the room versus only salivating when seeing the food).
The biggest strengths of behavioral psychology include: it focuses on empirical data (easily observable and measurable behaviors), it is repeatable through scientific experiments, and it is useful in modifying behaviors in animals and people in the real-world. It also has practical applications in education, parenting, child care and learning as well as in therapy. Behavioral psychologists work in a variety of settings including education, healthcare, and correctional facilities. Not only can psychologists utilize behavioral psychology techniques, parents, teachers, and animal trainers can use these techniques. Some behavior psychologists work as counselors or behavioral therapists where they meet with clients to help assess and identify behaviors and create treatment plans to address or modify behaviors. Some behavioral therapies include aversion therapy, flooding, cognitive behavioral therapy, systematic desensitization, and other therapies to help people deal with anxiety, substance abuse, depression, aggression, and response to trauma. Students interested in continuing their education in behavioral psychology can view our list of the most affordable applied behavior analysis graduate programs and resources.
Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology focused on the assessment and treatment of mental illness, disability, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems. In other words, it is a branch of psychology concerned with providing mental, emotional, or behavioral health care for individuals, couples, groups, or families. Some of the more common issues or disorders that clinical psychologists deal with include severe substance abuse, sexual abuse, depression, anxiety, learning disabilities, and eating disorders. Generally, clinical psychologists take a continual and comprehensive approach to health care with the goal to understand, prevent, and relieve the issue or disorder to promote well-being and improve self-development.
Clinical psychology takes general psychology a step further by integrating the science, theory, and clinical knowledge when meeting with clients to assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, or behavioral issues. Furthermore, clinical psychology is one of the most popular branches of psychology as you can find psychologists working in clinics, hospitals, private practice and some schools. In fact, many clinical psychologists hold academic positions and are engaged in teaching, research, and supervision. You may also find clinical psychologists serving as consultants and helping to develop and administer social programs. Students interested in continuing their education in clinical psychology can visit our list of the most affordable clinical psychology graduate programs and resources.
Although clinical psychology shares many characteristics with other helping professions, sometimes this creates confusion. For example, a clinical psychologist is different from a psychiatrist. Furthermore, clinical psychology must also be distinguished from counseling psychology. Although they may appear very similar, they are different in many ways. For more information review the counseling psychology section.
Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that uses scientific study to explore and understand the internal mental processes related to attention, memory, perception, thinking, problem-solving, creativity, and language use. In other words, cognitive psychologists use the scientific method to study (and view) the mind as an information processor while attempting to build cognitive models which help explain what happens inside people’s minds during different life experiences and events.
Unlike behavior psychology, behaviorism, and behavior analysis which focus on the observable behavior, cognitive psychology focuses on the internal events related to perception, attention, thought, language, and memory. Cognitive psychology has been influenced by approaches to information processing and information theory so much so that a key element of cognitive psychology is the view that the mind is an information processor like how a computer inputs, stores, and recalls data. Some research articles even reference two to three stages of memory including short-term memory, long-term memory, and sometimes sensory memory. In addition to comparing a human’s mind to a computer or machine, some cognitive psychologists have also begun comparing how a human’s mind receives, processes, and stores information to artificial intelligence.
Another key element of cognitive psychology is the belief that human behavior can be understood and interpreted by how the human mind operates while receiving, processing, and recalling information. Cognitive psychologists are more interested in how the stimulus-response relationship works. Using the computer analogy, they look at all of the inputs and the relationship these inputs have with the outputs. They use lab experiments, interviews, memory psychology, and case studies as research tools to better understand how the mind works.
One of the strengths of cognitive psychology is that it follows the scientific method and, therefore, is highly controlled and follow methods that can be replicated in lab experiments to produce reliable and objective data. In addition, the cognitive approach is probably one of the most dominant approaches in the entire field of psychology and it can be combined with various other psychological approaches. For example, if you combine cognitive psychology with behaviorism, you get social learning theory. If you combine it with biology, you get evolutionary psychology.
As a result of cognitive psychology easily combining with other various psychological approaches, cognitive psychology has been integrated into other disciplines such as educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, developmental psychology, abnormal psychology and other cognitive sciences. For example, cognitive psychology has influenced social learning theory, cognitive neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and others.
Some of the methodologies or studies that have used the cognitive approach include lab experiments, case studies, computer modeling, interviews, observations, and hypnosis. Cognitive psychology and the cognitive approach have been applied in a variety of applications including education, memory and forgetting, moral development, learning styles, perception, attention, and eyewitness testimony. In addition, cognitive psychology has been applied to many forms of therapy (such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] which changes the way a person processes their thoughts to help make them more rational and positive). CBT has been applied and effective for treating depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, and some forms of addiction as well as other life challenges. Students interested in continuing their education in cognitive psychology can view our list of the most affordable cognitive psychology graduate programs and resources.
Community psychology is a growing specialty branch of psychology that focuses on how individuals relate to, and influence, their environment and local communities as well as society in general. In addition, more recent community psychology research has focused on how the environment and communities affect individuals. Therefore, community psychologists have recognized the reciprocal affect and complex individual-environment interactions in today’s society.
Community psychologists examine a variety of economic, cultural, social, environmental, political, and international influences to better understand and identify problems so that they can develop and implement solutions within communities. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a division (Division 27) which focuses on community research and action. In fact Division 27 has its own website called the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA) which includes who they are, what they do, resources and publications available as well as current events and upcoming events dealing with community psychology.
Community psychologists can utilize both applied psychology and theoretical psychology when engaging in this type of research. In addition, there are basically two ways to promote change or address a community problem. First, you can treat or change the individuals in the community. Second, you can engage in research to change the system or structure in a community.
The idea of community psychology is relatively new and was first used in 1965 at the Swampscott Conference (in Swampscott, MA) when nearly 40 psychologists met to discuss the possibility of new opportunities and roles for psychologists by training professionals to focus on social problems and community well-being. Since the Swampscott Conference, these new community psychologists have extended services to those who were under-represented while focusing on both treatment and prevention of social and psychological problems in a community and by working to build collaborative relationships with community members, groups, and organizations to identify and solve social problems.
The field of community psychology has evolved to focus on prevention, promote positive change, social justice, health, and empowerment by taking an ecological perspective. A clinical psychologist traditionally takes an individualistic perspective when treating a person. That is, they focus solely on the individual. On the other hand, a community psychologist focus on how the community and the larger society affects the individual. In fact, they consider how individuals, communities, and societies are interconnected and affect one another. Many psychologists in this field of study have also referenced two other ecological principles (interdependence and adaptation). Interdependence is the idea that everything is connected so when one aspect is changed it will impact others. Adaptation suggests that behavior that is adaptive and works in one situation or setting may not work in another situation or setting. Therefore, the person will have to adapt and change their behavior to survive and thrive in the new situation.
There are many other principles that have emerged from the field of community psychology. For example, action-oriented research (including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research) along with community-based participatory research and active participation by the citizens has been key features of community psychology. In addition, a respect for diversity, a sense of community, empowerment, and wellness have been other features of community psychology.
Within the community psychology field, the ecological perspective incorporates the multiple layers or levels which need to be considered when looking at problems including the individual, family, neighborhood, community, society as well as the policies, structures, and systems of each all the way up to the national level. In the end, a community psychologist is a problem-identifier and a problem-solver of community issues. These issues may stem from the environment, system, or structure of the community or they may stem from the individuals in the community or a combination of both.
Community psychologists may work in a variety of settings such as education, government, community organizations, nonprofit groups, and private consulting. In the academic setting, they may work at community colleges, smaller undergraduate colleges and larger universities to teach courses and develop, and conduct, original research. In the government setting, they may work in health and human services departments for city, county, state, and federal governments. Students interested in continuing their education in community psychology can view our list of the most affordable community psychology graduate programs and resources.
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that focuses on treating less severe problems such as relationship issues and a variety of different emotional, behavioral, or social problems as well as marital, family, and career problems. In other words, a counseling psychologist focuses more on a patient’s emotional well-being or other social and physical issues which typically stem from life stresses associated with work, school, relationships, or family. Counseling psychologists typically focus on diagnosis, wellness and prevention.
Counseling psychologists work in a variety of settings including universities and colleges as teachers, supervisors, researchers, and service providers. In addition, you will find counseling psychologists working as independent practitioners which provide counseling, psychotherapy, assessment, and preventative care to individuals, couples, families, and groups. In some cases, you will also find them working at community health centers, VA medical centers, family centers, rehabilitation centers, and within the business and industrial segments as well.
So, what is the difference between clinical and counseling psychology? While both fall under the psychology domain and, therefore, share some overlap, there are also many differences between counseling and clinical psychology. For example, they share at least 3 similarities. First, when you look into each branch of psychology, you will find that both groups of psychologists provide psychotherapy and many participate in research. Second, you will find counseling psychologists in many of the same settings as a clinical psychologist (e.g., employed at colleges, universities, health clinics, hospitals, and private practice). Third, when a counseling psychologist and a clinical psychologist receive their license to practice, both are considered licensed psychologists (i.e., there is no difference in their licensure).
There are some key differences between clinical and counseling psychology. Clinical psychologists tend to treat clients with more severe mental, emotional, or behavioral problems such as bipolar disorder, multiple personality disorder, phobias, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, counseling psychologists treat clients with less severe problems such as relationship issues, certain kinds of substance abuse, and marital, family, or career problems.
Furthermore, clinical psychologists tend to focus on psychopathology in their training and treat the psychoanalytical and behavioral aspects of treatment. On the other hand, counseling psychologists usually work with patients who are healthier and fewer psychological problems which makes sense when you look at the origin of each. Clinical comes from the Greek word “kline” meaning bed. Counseling comes from the Latin word “counsulere” meaning advising. Clinical psychology focuses more on mental health disturbances whereas counseling psychology focuses more on providing guidance and advice. Students interested in continuing their education in counseling psychology can view our list of the most affordable counseling psychology graduate programs and resources.
Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology which focuses on how, why, and to what extent a person (and humans in general) changes throughout their lifetime. Early research tended to focus only on infants and children, however, more recent research has extended this to include adolescence, adulthood, aging, and the entire human lifespan. A developmental psychologist takes a scientific approach to examine how and why a person’s thoughts, behaviors, and feelings change throughout their life.
Much of the research has focused on the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development of a person through various stages of his or her life. Some of the areas of study include physical, emotional, cognitive, intellectual, social, and personality changes as well as language acquisition, formation and development of self-concept, identity, and moral understanding. Developmental psychologists examine the influences of nature vs. nurture, whether development can be viewed as a gradual process or seen as a sequence of separate stages, and whether personality traits change or stay the same over time.
Depending on which theory you study, the number of developmental stages a person goes through ranges from 4 stages to 8, 12, or more stages. For example, Jean Piaget is considered the “Father of Developmental Psychology” and his theory of development is considered to be the first stage theory in the field. According to Piaget, all people pass through the same four stages of development. In addition, in order to progress to the next stage, the person must meet or exceed the goals of each stage. The first stage is known as the sensorimotor stage and represents the first two years of a baby’s life where babies are learning about, and experimenting with, the physical objects around them. Language development and object permanence are goals of this stage. The second stage usually lasts until the age of 7 and is called the preoperational stage. This is where children use symbolic thinking to increase their understanding of a wide variety of concepts. The third stage is called the concrete operational stage and usually lasts until the age of 12. This is where children develop and demonstrate logical thinking skills as well as improvements in their reasoning skills. The fourth, and final, stage is the formal operational stage and typically begins around 11 or 12 years of age and lasts throughout adulthood. This stage is represented by an increased understanding of abstract concepts.
Another well-known developmental theory is Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of personality development. His theory is known as the Psychosocial Developmental Theory because he was interested in an individual’s development (how one develops and changes their self-identity) and a person’s social/cultural identity (how one develops and changes their role within one’s family, friends, and society). Erikson was well-known in the areas of psychoanalytics and psychological development and is famous for coining the popular phrase “identity crisis”. Erikson believed that everyone goes through 8 stages of development throughout their life. Stage 1 is where the infant learns about trust vs. mistrust. If the infant receives consistent and reliable care from the caregiver, then he says the infant will gain a sense of trust and confidence. If the care is inconsistent or sporadic then the infant will feel unsafe and may grow insecure. Stage 2 is where the toddler learns about autonomy vs. shame and self-doubt. When a caregiver allows their toddler to safely explore the world around them while still serving as a safe base, then the toddler will feel secure enough to explore and gain autonomy and independence. On the other hand, if the caregiver fosters dependence and discourages the toddler from exploring, then self-doubt and even shame may develop. Stage 3 is where the preschooler learns about initiative vs. guilt. Erikson believes that preschoolers are focused on doing things themselves so when caregivers encourage these behaviors, they learn how to make their own decisions and can develop planning skills which can translate into an adult who can plan ahead and follow their own ambitions. If a preschooler is constantly criticized for doing their own thing or being assertive, they will learn to simply follow another person’s lead instead of making their own decisions. Stage 4 happens in the early school years where children learn about industry vs. inferiority. According to the theory, industry represents those children who are developing self-confidence and self-esteem as a result of receiving praise for their accomplishments. Inferiority happens when children are constantly criticized and do not achieve certain milestones (e.g., inferiority complex). Stage 5 is adolescence and is when adolescents’ learn about identity vs. role confusion. During this stage adolescents’ try to learn more about themselves and their identity by trying different personas to figure out which one fits them the best. Those who find their identity usually have established a coherent sense of self and their priorities. As a result, they can establish goals and abide by the values they set for themselves as adults. Those who do not develop a strong sense of self may not venture out by themselves or try different personas and, as a result, they have not developed a consistent and strong identity (i.e., identity crisis). Stage 6 is young adulthood and is where the person learns about intimacy vs. isolation. This stage is defined as anywhere from 20-24 years of age to 20-40 years of age. If a person can develop significant relationships where they can find affection and intimacy, then they will find many emotional benefits. On the other hand, if a person does not develop these types of relationships, they may become isolated and develop feelings of loneliness. Stage 7 is middle adulthood and is where adults learn about generativity vs. stagnation. During this stage people may offer guidance to others through parenting or mentoring and they may feel like they are contributing to society. In doing so, they develop a sense of purpose. If a person doesn’t feel like they are contributing to society (or have no impact on society), they may feel isolated or restless. In addition, they may feel like they have “peaked” (i.e., stagnated). The final stage, Stage 8, occurs late in adulthood and is where older adults learn about ego integrity vs. despair. This is the stage where people reflect on their life and if they feel like they have lived a full life, they can face aging and death with a sense of accomplishment. On the other hand, older adults who have regrets or disappointments may feel despair and cannot gracefully age and face death.
There are other developmental theories that have proven to be influential within this field, however, instead of providing an overview of these theories, we will simply list them below for your convenience. Additionally, students interested in continuing their education in developmental psychology can view our list of the most affordable developmental psychology graduate programs and resources.
- Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory.
- Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Understanding Stage Theory.
- Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory.
- Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (EDP) Theory.
- John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory.
- Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Theory.
- Various Constructivism Theories (e.g., Cognitive Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Radical Constructivism).
Educational psychology is a branch of psychology focused on the scientific study of how humans learn, retain, and apply knowledge. Psychologists in this field may include the emotional, cognitive, social, and behavior learning processes when studying how people absorb and retain information as well as how they apply this in their lives.
Though education psychology was, and is, primarily studied in educational settings, people continue learning throughout their lives in a variety of settings. Therefore, educational psychologists have expanded their focus (and resulting applications) to other settings such as the workplace, home, public service, social, medical, and counseling. Moreover, they have expanded the group of people studied to include children of all ages in the education system as well as those middle-aged and older adults. Some educational psychologists have also focused their studies on particular groups of people who have particular learning challenges (e.g., attention deficit disorder [ADD], attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], dyslexia) or other behavioral problems that may inhibit learning.
Educational psychologists incorporate theories and topics from other related fields of psychology (e.g., developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, etc.) to create, or build upon existing, research that can be applied in the real-world. The field of education psychology primarily uses quantitative methods to understand how cognitive and behavioral development as well as intelligence, social background, emotion, motivation, age, and setting impact a person’s learning. As such educational psychology has used, and expanded, theories of operant conditioning, behaviorism, constructivism, functionalism, humanistic psychology, Gestalt psychology, and information processing.
Psychologists working in the educational field may work with teachers, educators, counselors, speech and language therapists to better understand how to answer questions regarding how to improve teaching, retention, and the learning environment so that students of all ages can improve their learning. In particular, they may evaluate and analyze existing teaching methods, testing methods, and particular education programs to determine how effective they are for students. Then they may develop new ones to help improve the learning process by changing the setting, teaching method, and resources used (e.g., textbooks, worksheets, lesson plans, tests, videos, online learning, etc.).
Some education psychologists also work with students one-on-one as well as with parents and administrators. Others may coordinate their efforts with social workers, psychiatrists, and medical providers. Many educational psychologists focus, or specialize, in the development of specific groups of people. For example, some of them focus primarily on children while others focus on adults and still others focus on those with a learning disability. A smaller portion may also work with community organizations or learning centers while others might work at private or government research centers. Students interested in continuing their education to become an educational psychologist can view our list of the most affordable educational psychology graduate programs and resources.
Experimental psychology is the study of human and animal behavior by using scientific methods to better understand behavior. The scientific method is used in all sciences and is characterized as a method of research in which a problem is identified or a question is asked, research is conducted where relevant data is collected, an hypothesis (or multiple hypotheses) is formulated or proposed, an experiment is designed and conducted to test the hypothesis, data is recorded and analyzed (typically through observation), leading to a conclusion or multiple conclusions. These experiments may help psychologists develop theories that help identify and explain behavior by humans and animals.
Though the science of psychology covers several areas from abnormal psychology to cognitive psychology to educational psychology to social psychology, it helps to view or separate these fields into two types: applied versus experimental. Experimental psychology focuses primarily on experimental research and empirical methods, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations).
It is important to remember that applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results. Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology. Visit the applied psychology section for further information.
Experimental psychologists are interested in a wide variety of topics which include memory, cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, sensation, and learning, behavioral, and developmental processes. Some experimental psychologists spend their entire careers studying one problem or set of problems or one question or set of related questions. Their work and results often build upon each other and lead to more questions or larger findings which lead to a more comprehensive theory. The type of research an experimental psychologist conducts depends on their background, interests, and area of employment.
Similar to other psychologists, experimental psychologists can work in a variety of settings including educational (colleges and universities) and research institutions as well as government and private industries or businesses. The key for those pursuing a career in experimental psychology is that most, if not all, of their attention is focused on experimental and empirical research and many have a passion for solving problems or pursuing and exploring theoretical questions. With this said, however, almost all psychologists may be considered experimental psychologists as research is the foundation of the discipline and many psychologists split their time spent on conducting research, teaching, and applying research (their own and others) to the real-world. Students interested in continuing their education in experimental psychology can view our list of the most affordable experimental psychology graduate programs and resources.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach to psychology that presumes that human cognition, behavior, and emotions are shaped by the pressure to survive and reproduce. In other words, evolutionary psychology focuses on how human evolution has shaped and changed our thoughts, actions, and feelings. Evolutionary psychology has its roots in evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and also draws on ideas from anthropology, genetics, behavioral ecology, archaeology, zoology, and artificial intelligence.
Evolutionary psychologists believe that human behavior is shaped by human evolution and our need to survive, thrive, and reproduce so much so that our thoughts, emotions, and behavior represent adaptations that enabled our ancestors to survive. In this field of study, psychologists propose that we have functional mechanisms in our brain, called psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms, which are products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Therefore, human behavior is a result of these psychological adaptations to address and solve persistent problems within our ancestral environments as well as current environments.
The idea that we adapt to our environment is nothing new. Indeed, within evolutionary biology, the idea that our physiological systems such as our lungs, hearts, immune system, and other parts of our body have evolved and adapted over time is widely recognized. Evolutionary psychologists argue that modular adaptions of the mind serve different functions and have evolved as a process of natural selection. Examples of these psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms include cheater detection mechanisms, incest avoidance mechanisms, foraging mechanisms, language acquisition modules, and intelligence and sex-specific mating preferences. One such behavior that serves our self-preservation is protecting and guarding our romantic partners. Our ancestors have guarded our mates because competition was harsh, and it is in our best interest to preserve our genes to ensure that we have offspring.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that traits or behaviors that are universally recognized across many cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations such as the ability to recognize and infer emotions, ability to identify and prefer healthier mates, and the ability to cooperate with others as these all help us survive and reproduce. These types of behaviors have generated many studies of human social behavior related to intelligence, mating preferences, perception of beauty, promiscuity, marriage preferences and patterns, and cheating tendencies and patterns.
Some of the research in evolutionary psychology refers to a concept known as evolutionary mismatch or evolutionary trap which is when we find ourselves in a modern-day environment which is inconsistent with our ancestral tendencies. In other words, this happens when our innate evolved traits and tendencies, which once were advantageous in past environments, have now become maladaptive and disadvantageous in the current environment. Some evolutionary psychologists have applied this same idea to psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms. Moreover, some evolutionary psychologists have argued that evolutionary psychology is not a subdiscipline of psychology, rather, it is an evolutionary theory that can serve as a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the whole field of psychology much like evolutionary biology has for biology.
There are a variety of definitions for forensic psychology ranging from a relatively narrow definition to a broad definition. In general, forensic psychology is the application of psychological theory and practice to the legal arena. Other definitions focus on, and include, the people involved in the legal system (i.e., usually the perpetrators or criminals). For example, forensic psychology is the interaction of clinical specialties to the legal system and those who come into contact with the law. No matter what definition is used, forensic psychologists focus on the application of psychological theory and practice to criminal, court, and correctional systems.
Another way of describing forensic psychology is looking at the definition of forensic which can be defined as “the scientific method for investigating crime”. Therefore, forensic psychology can also be thought of as applying both psychological theory and practice with the scientific method to the legal system. Those who study, and practice in, forensic psychology must have strong clinical skills and an understanding of the law, its terms, and its processes. It is important to note that forensic psychology is different from legal psychology. Legal psychology takes a more experimental focus whereas forensic psychology is more focused on the clinical application of psychology in the legal arena. Though legal psychology and forensic psychology are different, together they form what is generally referred to as the overall field of psychology and law.
In fact, many schools offer a dual degree in psychology and the law. Moreover, those who want to become a forensic psychologist must have a Master’s degree (at a minimum) and either a PhD or PsyD as well as 1-2 years of organized and supervised professional experience. In addition, a person must obtain state licensure and may consider getting board certified. In other words, you would need to obtain a Bachelor’s degree, a Master’s degree and/or PsyD or PhD in forensic psychology, and may even consider getting a law degree (although not required) such as a Juris Doctor (a degree earned by attorneys). Once you obtain these degrees, then you will need to obtain the state licensure and may consider becoming board certified by the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP) which, again, is not a requirement.
Forensic psychologists may work in the legal arena or work in the academic setting. For example, those working in the legal system may work in prisons, jails, rehabilitation centers, police departments, law firms, other government agencies or in private practice. Those working in the academic field may work in colleges, universities, government agencies, and other settings. Some psychologists focused on the application of their research or experimentation in the forensic field may be called upon as an expert witness or be asked to evaluate people involved in a crime or those involved in custody cases. In particular, forensic psychologists have worked directly with inmates by providing screening and psychological assessments, individual and group therapy, anger and crisis management, and sometimes court-ordered assessments. Others have been asked to look at the cognitive and emotional states of someone involved in a crime (e.g., sex offenses, murder cases, etc.). Indeed, the sensationalism of television shows has highlighted the cases where a psychologist has to determine if someone was insane at the time of the crime. It is important to note that “insanity” is not a psychological term, it is a legal term and it varies by each state even though there is also a federal standard. In legal terms, a forensic psychologist may be asked to determine if a person possessed a guilty mind (mens rea) at the time a criminal act was committed. Students interested in continuing their education in forensic psychology can view our list of the most affordable forensic psychology graduate programs and resources.
General psychology is a term used to describe the entire umbrella that is the science of psychology. General psychology can also be thought of as the study of the mind including its cognition, emotion, behaviors, perception, and self-perception. As one of the human sciences, general psychology is more difficult (and some say impossible) than the other sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, astronomy, etc. because, by its very nature, psychologists try to study themselves…how do you psychoanalyze the psychoanalyst?
In the end, psychology is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Most of the research in general psychology has referred to different types of psychology including, but not limited to, cognitive, social, forensic, developmental, behavioral, clinical as well as others. In practical terms, general psychology has been around since humans began thinking about other people (why they act and behave the way they do, what they are thinking, etc.). However, most people would agree that general psychology became a disciplined science in the 1800s when it separated itself from the other sciences. Since then, the different types of psychology have grown but most people still refer to the main two categories of experimental and applied psychology. Experimental psychology focuses primarily on research, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations).
General psychology improved its reputation as a science when it began applying experimental method in its research (experimental psychology). When using the experimental method a psychologist will make observations, form an hypothesis, make a prediction [or multiple predictions], develop and perform an experiment to test the prediction[s], analyze and interpret the results, draw a conclusion, and report the results. Applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results. Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology.
General psychologists are trained to have certain skills and possess clinical knowledge they use to help people deal with problems or stresses in their lives. They use a variety of techniques which are based on previous research or their own research. These techniques and skills are usually applied in the clinical setting while meeting, and treating, individuals. In addition to having clinical knowledge and skills, general psychologists also receive training on developing, administering, and interpreting various assessments and tests. These can be used to help a person understand their cognitive strengths and weaknesses, their intellectual skills and capacity, their personality characteristics, and many other preferences and aptitudes.
Psychologists can work in government settings, clinical settings, academic settings, as well as in private practice. They typically work in the health field and work with those who have cognitive or mental health issues so they may work with other health professionals such as doctors (physicians, psychiatrists, pediatricians) and others to provide a more comprehensive treatment which may include therapeutic and medical management. Most general psychologists have a doctorate degree such as a PhD or PsyD. Some choose to complete the EdPsy which is specific to educational psychology. A PhD takes longer to complete (usually around 5 years) whereas a PsyD takes less time (usually around 3 years) and is popular for those interested in becoming a general psychologist who focuses on therapy rather than focusing on developing new theories or new techniques. Once you have completed your doctorate degree, most states require that you have a period of supervised working experience (usually 2 years) then you must pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) which is administered by the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). Students interested in continuing their education in general psychology can view our list of the most affordable general psychology graduate programs and resources.
Health psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on how all areas of our lives affect our physical health and well-being. Most of the current research in this field have focused on how psychological, social, and biological factors influence health, fitness, and illness. In addition, health psychologists also look at how behaviors (good and bad) impact our ability to prevent, and recover from, illness or cope with a chronic illness. Moreover, health psychologists are not only concerned with how our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors affect our health, they are also concerned with how our health affects our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Therefore, it is reciprocal in nature as much as it is causal.
Some of the research has referred to health psychology as medical psychology or behavioral medicine. Whatever term is used, health psychology wasn’t recognized as a separate branch of psychology until the late 1970s when several psychology professionals sponsored a petition to create a new health psychology division within the American Psychology Association (APA). As a result of their efforts, Division 38 of the APA – the Health Psychology Division – was created in 1978. Division 38 is now called the Society for Health Psychology and they seek “to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research, education and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge”.
One of the main approaches used in the field of health psychology today is known as the biosocial model which posits that a combination of psychological, biological, and social factors contributes to a person’s illness and health. Psychological factors may include a person’s stress levels, personality characteristics, and overall lifestyle. Biological factors may include genetic and personality traits. Social factors may include family, friends, and work support systems and the relative closeness of those relationships as personal and cultural beliefs. Health psychologists using the biosocial model will look at all of these factors to help determine the causes of illness as well as developing and implementing plans for prevention and recovery.
With this in mind, many health psychologists work with medical professionals in healthcare facilities (hospitals, clinics) as well as working for non-profit organizations and in the government and private sectors. Of course, many health psychologists also work in academia at colleges and universities. Those who do work in the academic field may teach and conduct research. Some may also work in specialty practices such as oncology, rehabilitation facilities, pain management, or other areas such as treating patients suffering from PTSD or those wanting to quit smoking or treating an eating disorder.
The field of health psychology has grown substantially recently as a result of more people living longer and taking control of their health instead of simply relying on their traditional medical doctor’s advice. For example, life expectancy in the United States in 1959 was 69.9 years compared to 78.9 years in 2016. However, this same research showed that the rate of increase in life expectancy has slowed down over time and life expectancy has actually decreased slightly after 2014. Health psychologists look for possible reasons for these trends. Another reason why we have seen a growth in health psychologists is people are looking for other (alternative) ways to help prevent, treat, and cope with illness and their overall well-being. This is where the medical field and health psychology field can work symbiotically to take a more holistic approach to improve the care and overall well-being of their patients. Students interested in continuing their education in health psychology can view our list of the most affordable health psychology graduate programs and resources.
Industrial Organizational Psychology
Industrial/Organizational psychology (I/O) is an applied discipline within the field of psychology with a broader scope than other fields relative to the knowledge and skills required for the job, the worksites and the daily responsibilities. Industrial/Organizational psychology can also be referred to as occupational psychology. The field of I/O psychology has been informed by knowledge from occupational medicine, industrial psychology, industrial engineering, economics, preventive medicine and public health.
As society was shifting from an agrarian economy into the industrial era, companies’ greatest concerns were material production and the bottom line. Working conditions for their employees was a distant second. Early studies were focused on ways to increase productivity and were adopted, often, at a cost to the workers. Eventually, in response to a dramatic increase in the number of stress-related worker compensation claims, stress-related physical and psychological disorders were recognized as a leading occupational health risk. Companies began to see the need for understanding how people behave in a work environment. Armed with that knowledge, an industrial/organizational psychologist may be tasked with determining what policies or actions an organization should take to get the best performance from its employees as well as ways for employees to obtain maximum job satisfaction. Workplace issues can often be resolved because of industrial/organizational psychologists working with business owners, managers and individual employees. An I/O psychologist is seen as someone who can increase the effectiveness of an organization and reduce organizational risk factors for stress, illness and injury.
While industrial/organizational psychology is an applied discipline of psychology, I/O psychologists also conduct research. Research has examined the relationship between high levels of work demand and the latitude that a worker has to make decisions. Another model used examines the relationship between effort and reward. The purpose of research is to understand how working conditions affect worker health and safety.
To become an I/O psychologist, you must have at least a Master’s degree in psychology. Some positions may require a PhD degree. Most states will require a license to practice industrial/organizational psychology which can be obtained by passing a licensing exam. Often I/O psychologists hold both a counseling degree and a business degree. Courses in business management, organizational psychology, mediation, and employment law are recommended. Core curricula often include the following topics: survey of occupational safety and health; job stress theory and mechanisms; organizational risk factors for occupational stress, injury, and illness; health implications of stressful work (physical and psychological) and social and economic outcomes; organizational interventions (e.g., work redesign); and programs for reduction of occupational stress, illness and injury (e.g., employee assistance programs, work-family programs).
Most commonly, industrial/organizational psychologists are hired by large organizations that have many employees. The employee may be part of a human resources department; or, if the organization is particularly large, they may be a part of a separate department. I/O psychologists are also found in work environments such as academic institutes, private practices, research firms, large businesses, leadership development centers, human resource departments, employment assistant programs, and government or private consulting firms.
Some industrial/organizational psychologists choose to be self-employed or work on a freelance basis; however, they may not step out on their own until they have gained experience over a number of years and have built a client base. I/O psychologists usually work a traditional schedule, seldom working weekends or evenings.
Other industrial/organizational psychology positions that may have similar job descriptions and responsibilities include health and safety advisor, recruitment consultant, occupational hygienist, employee relations officer, human resource manager, training and development officer/manager, and ergonomist.
The employment outlook is comparable to positions in other fields of psychology. The median salary is $47.76 an hour. The growth in number of positions is estimated at 13%. Students interested in continuing their education in I-O Psychology can view our list of the most affordable industrial organizational psychology graduate programs and resources.
Legal psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on issues related to law, the court system, and legal processes. Much of the research in legal psychology involves empirical research that focuses on the issues related to the law, legal institutions and processes, as well as those involved in the legal process. For example, legal psychologists will apply cognitive and social principles when dealing with eyewitness memory, jury selection and decision-making, the investigation process and interviewing process. Some legal psychologists argue that one of their goals is to help improve the legal process so that it runs more smoothly and has less impact on the people involved. One of the goals of psychology is to understand behavior while one of the goals of law is to regulate and control behavior. Legal psychology is a combination of the two with the focus on the people involved in the legal process and the process itself.
The term, and branch of, legal psychology is relatively new in the field of psychology. Some argue that it is used to help differentiate it from forensic psychology. Though legal psychology and forensic psychology are different, together they form what is generally referred to as the overall field of psychology and law. In fact, the American Psychological Association has created a division (Division 41 – American Psychology – Law Society [AP-LS]) that takes a multidisciplinary approach by including research, clinical practice, public policy, teaching and training from a variety of perspectives within the field of psychology including social, developmental, cognitive, and clinical.
With this said, it is important to note that forensic psychology is different from legal psychology. Generally, legal psychology takes a more experimental focus and examines the issues that occur within the legal system whereas forensic psychology is more focused on the clinical application of psychology in the legal arena especially in criminal cases. More specifically, legal psychologists focus more on the thoughts and behaviors of jurors, the jury selection process, the court system process, and other legal processes. Legal psychologists typically work with lawyers, police officers, and judges to research and show patterns within the legal system. They are not necessarily focused on, or concerned about, the criminals or defendants.
On the other hand, forensic psychologists are usually involved in criminal cases and are focused on the suspects, convicted felons/criminals, and defendants. Forensic psychologists are often asked to help determine if a suspect was sane at the time they committed a crime. In addition, they may also be asked to determine if a suspect or criminal will be likely to commit crime again in the future if released from prison. In order to determine this, the forensic psychologist will interview the suspect or criminal (usually in jail or prison or at a police station). In other words, forensic psychologists typically work with suspects, defendants, and criminals whereas legal psychologists usually work with lawyers, judges and police officers.
Legal psychologists may also work in an administrative capacity to help develop and implement new legal policies and procedures which improve upon existing policies or attempt to address new issues or concerns. They may work for a city council, a mayor, or other city officials to help devise the language in a city’s ordinance. Most of the time, however, legal psychologists evaluate and assess the individuals involved in the legal and court process (e.g., the jurors, the jury process, witnesses, expert witnesses, etc.). They may also need to evaluate a parent seeking custody of a minor child or an inmate scheduled to go to trial or an inmate scheduled for release.
Legal psychologists may work in a variety of settings within the criminal justice system as well as outside of it. They may work in the courthouse, in private practice, in correctional facilities or detention centers, or they may work for federal law enforcement agencies. Legal psychologists may also work in the academic field as teachers, researchers, or administrators. According to the APA, jobs such as legal psychologist (those where psychology and law intersect), are going to experience higher growth and be in more demand than those such as the general psychologist.
Neuropsychology is a combination of neuroscience (the study of the brain and nervous system) and psychology (the study of the mind including its cognition, emotion, behaviors, perception, and self-perception). Therefore, neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on how the brain and the nervous system influences a person’s thoughts (cognitions) and behaviors. This field of study is both experimental and clinical in nature. While neurology is focused on the pathology (the study of the causes and effects of illness/disease or injury) of the nervous system, neuropsychology aims to discover how the mind responds to, and works through, disease or injury. Neuropsychologists evaluate and treat people to better understand how their cognition and behavior are influenced by brain activity (or lack thereof) in different parts of the brain as a result of injury or disease.
Generally, when a physician requests neurological testing for a patient, it is completed by a clinical neuropsychologist. Furthermore, it is usually ordered for people who have experienced an illness or injury (primarily to the brain). The clinical neuropsychologist will then utilize various methods to assess the illness or injury to diagnose the cause, help manage the illness or injury, and develop a rehabilitation plan for the patient. Some of the methods include standard neuropsychological tests, functional brain imaging or brain scans (e.g., SPECT, PET, MRI, fMRI, and CAT or CT), electrophysiology measures (e.g., EEG, MEG), and the use of experimental tasks which measure reaction time and accuracy on tasks related to specific neurocognitive processes (e.g., CANTAB, CNSVS).
There are a variety of approaches used by neuropsychologists in this field of study including experimental neuropsychology, clinical neuropsychology, cognitive neuropsychology, behavioral neuropsychology. Experimental neuropsychology takes an experimental psychology approach to discover the relationship between cognitive function and the nervous system. Clinical neuropsychology uses knowledge from both neurology and psychology to assess, manage, and treat/rehabilitate those who have experienced an illness or suffer an illness. Cognitive neuropsychology applies both experimental and clinical approaches into one to better understand how the brain and mind functions within those who have a neurological illness or suffered from brain injury. Within this area, there are multiple models used by cognitive neuropsychologists. Behavioral neuropsychology is an approach that uses the ideas from behavioral theory and neuropsychological principles to study the nerves, neurotransmitters, and circuitry of the brain and how (and why) these processes affect behavior. Please note that researchers in this field refer to behavioral neuropsychology as other names such as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology.
Neuropsychologists may work in government or private research facilities as well as in the academic field at universities or colleges so they can conduct their research and teach at the same time. Clinical neuropsychologists may work in a variety of healthcare settings such as hospitals, clinics, physicians’ offices, or serve as clinical-trial consultants (when new drugs or treatments are being trialed). Though the majority of neuropsychologists engage in research, some of them work directly with patients to help diagnose and treat their disease or injury. For example, they may work with patients who have neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s (or other forms of dementia), Parkinson’s disease, or a variety of learning disabilities. Students interested in continuing their education in neuropsychology can view our list of the most affordable neuropsychology graduate programs and resources.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that attempts to study the personality of individuals as well as the similarities and differences between, and among, different people and groups. The word personality comes from the Latin word persona which means “mask”. Personality is a combination of thought patterns, feelings and emotions, behavior, and motivation that influence a person’s overall expectations, values, attitudes, and perception and self-perception.
The study of personality psychology has focused on three broad areas: One area is focused on understanding the differences in specific personality characteristics within an individual (e.g., if one is more of an introvert or extrovert). Another area of focus is understanding a person’s overall personality type (where the person falls on all of the specific personality characteristics). A third area of focus is studying the similarities and differences in these patterns and personality types between, and among, different people and groups.
Most of the research in this area references five basic philosophical assumptions (questions) that help determine personality including: Freedom vs. Determinism (how much control does one have over their own behavior and the motives behind it?), Heredity vs. Environment (nature versus nurture), Uniqueness vs. Universality (the extent to which one person is unique or similar to others), Active vs. Reactive (do humans act through their own initiative or act as a result of outside stimuli), Optimistic vs. Pessimistic (the extent to which humans play an integral part in changing their own personalities).
There are a number of different approaches to studying personality, however, the major personality theories include:
- Type theories (psychological classification of different types of people) attempt to develop personality types based on characteristics that can be thought of as an either-or situation while others can be thought of as existing on a continuum. One of the more well-known type theories is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator which was created by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, during WWII. This model resulted in 16 personality types. There are many other type theories in this field of study.
- Psychoanalytical theories attempt to explain human behavior based on the interaction of three significant components (id, ego, super-ego). Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought.
- Learning theories (a.k.a., Behaviorist theories) explain behavior and personality as responses to external stimuli. In other words, it applies social learning theory to the development of personality and behavior.
- Cognitive theories explain that behaviors are a result of cognitions (e.g., expectations) about the world around you and emphasize that cognitive processes help shape your personality.
- Humanistic theories argue that people have free will and this is the most important determinant of behavior. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were well-known proponents of this theory and believed in a hierarchy of needs and the idea that people strive to become self-actualized (people “fulfilling themselves and doing the best they are capable of doing”).
- Biopsychological theories focus on the role biology (genetics) and the brain have on the development of personality. Many research articles have referred to the case of Phineas Gage where, in 1848, an iron rod was driven through Gage’s head and his personality changed as a result.
- Evolutionary theories explore how variances in personality may be a result of natural selection. Charles Darwin is the founder of the theory of evolution of the species upon which the evolutionary approach to personality psychology is based.
- Drive theories attempt to explain personality based on primary and secondary drives. For example, personality could develop from consistent habitual responses of an individual (i.e., their habits). The secondary, or acquired, drives are learned through a process of classical conditioning. Furthermore, the secondary drives are built on primary drives and may vary based on the social environment (e.g., culture). John Dollard and Neal Elgar Miller are associated with this school of thought.
Personality psychologists may work in mental health facilities, rehabilitation centers, hospitals and clinics or may have a private practice and work out of their office. Those who focus more on research may work in the academic field in colleges or universities or work for governmental agencies or private research organizations. Students interested in continuing their education in personality psychology can visit our list of the most affordable personality psychology graduate programs and resources.
School psychology incorporates multiple branches of psychology (educational, developmental, clinical, community and applied behavior analysis) into the practice of consultation, intervention and assessment of school childrens’ psychological health to help meet educational needs. This is done in collaboration with families, teachers, and school administrators. The science of school psychology is historically grounded in educational psychology. School psychology is a somewhat new practice as it began in the early 20th century when the need for special education learning arose more in the classroom. The formation of school psychology education has matured throughout the years to include diverse training in research and application to equip school psychologists to provide a variety of services to students, school administrators, teachers and community programs.
Educational psychology and school psychology both study the science of human learning. Both school psychology and educational psychology use psychology theory and research methodology to better understand the cognitive and behavioral processes of learning. This research data is used to design educational programs to assist educators in teaching. Main differences between school psychology and educational psychology include degree program training, credential/certification requirements, and workplace environment. Many educational psychologists are involved in research or consultation but may also be in the school environment. The majority of school psychologists work directly with students, families and teachers in a school facility.
School psychologists have such a dynamic skill set that their profession could easily be described as a five-in-one psychologist. They apply psychology to every facet of the learning process within the school, partnering with teachers and family members to foster growth in education and eliminate negative climates for students. They are trained in individual and systemwide crisis prevention and are proactive in communicating with school administration and educators to ensure preventative programs are being executed for the health and safety of students and staff. According to the National Association of School Psychologists, they are “a highly skilled and ready resource in the effort to ensure that all children and youth thrive in school, at home, and in life.” School psychologists mostly work in K-12 grade schools, but some work in other school-based settings such as universities (research or teaching), school district administration offices, or as consultants to juvenile rehabilitation/treatment centers.
A career as a school psychologist is both rewarding and challenging. Workload due to high demand of school psychologists with low numbers of applicants leaves many professionals in the field overworked and scattered among multiple schools. Addressing new technology issues, pressure from assessment testing, and budget cuts in school funding also add to the challenge of practicing school psychology. Overall, however, most school psychologists love their careers and find that navigating through the challenges is ultimately worth the reward of helping students overcome obstacles to achieve success in learning both at school, at home, and in their communities.
Working in a school as a school psychologist requires a graduate school education. A school psychologist has a diversified portfolio of educational instruction. An undergraduate bachelor’s degree, followed by completion of a master’s degree program is the first step towards a career in school psychology. Most people then continue their education with a specialist degree or doctorate degree. A master’s specialist degree is the minimum degree accepted for certification requirements to enable the graduate to be able to work as a school psychologist. These degree programs last about 3 years with an experience-building internship built into the program. A doctorate degree usually requires 5-6 years commitment time. See our list of most affordable U.S. school psychology graduate programs and resources for more information.
Social psychology is the study of individuals and groups in interpersonal relationships and how personal reactions (thought, feeling and behavior) are influenced by the presence of others (physical or imagined). The data discoveries from this field of study is used to benefit larger-scale social problems that affect all of society. A few social problem examples that the science of social psychology helps examine and minimize include prejudice/discrimination, substance abuse, general crime, technology/social media controversy, judicial system concerns, ecological/environmental issues, and family, school, and workplace breakdown.
Social psychologists normally choose from two different category types for the career path that best fits them. The first category career type is in research. Many social psychologists spend their careers creating and conducting experiments in laboratories or universities. Grouped within the “research” category can also be “academia”. Social psychologists may also be professors at colleges and universities where they also manage their research. The second career type category is application. Social psychologists can also be employed in both the private and public sector of our economy. The job paths vary as there is a wide variety of businesses, non-profit organizations, and government entities that employ social psychologists in different areas of work. Consulting, marketing research, business management, political strategy, education policy and program evaluation, and data/technology analyzing are a few of the types of “application” social psychology careers.
The work that social psychologists contribute to society affects major aspects of our lives. Social psychologists generally have a love for their work and a profound sense of accomplishment knowing that their work positively affects multitudes of people everyday. Some of the research methods that social psychologists have developed and done in the past have been used for many years and have helped society in numerous ways. Modern social psychology research, especially with technology, has become increasingly more in demand as we try to discover how technology affects interpersonal relationships.
Most social psychology careers in research or teaching require a doctorate degree. Careers in “application” may only require a master’s degree. Degree programs names vary. For example, you can pursue a graduate education in general psychology but have an emphasis in social psychology. A master’s degree generally takes two years. A doctorate in social psychology normally takes 5 years to complete. The salary and job outlook depends on specialty and degree level earned. Students interested in continuing their education in social psychology can visit our list of the most affordable social psychology graduate programs and resources.
Top 25 Most Affordable Master’s in Psychology Programs
|Aspen University The AU Master of Arts in Psychology and Addiction Counseling is structured around courses that address primary theories of individual and family counseling as well as addiction-specific topics related to the treatment and prevention of substance abuse. Graduates will increase their understanding of addiction, including its psychological and neurological aspects and appropriate treatments.||$||#TD #CO|
|University of Texas Permian Basin The UTPB Master of Arts in Psychology has two concentrations: Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychology. The Clinical Psychology concentration offers training in child, adolescent, and adult disorders. The Experimental Psychology concentration focuses on advanced psychological theory, research methods, statistics, and manuscript preparation. UTPB offers small class sizes, individualized mentorship, and hands on experience in the field.||$||#TD #TX|
|Westfield State University (BACB) The WSU Department of Psychology offers the Master of Arts in Applied Behavior Analysis to individuals who work in a number of different settings such as schools, including traditional and special education classrooms, business and industry specific employers, healthcare, and other community based environments. The MA in Forensic Mental Health Counseling will prepare students for jobs that address the mental health needs of offender populations.||$||#TD #MA|
|American Public University System The APU Master of Arts in Psychology blends scientific theory and principles with academic research and applicable skills that are sought by industry professionals. This online degree program emphasizes the factors related to human behavior including lifespan development, social and cultural diversity, assessment, personality, and psychopathology.||$||#TD #WV|
|Avila University (MPCAC) The AU Master of Science in Psychology offers students an in-depth survey of the diverse research, theory, and practices of psychologys many sub-disciplines. Three tracks include: research, mental health and general. Au also offers a Master of Science in Counseling Psychology is designed to help graduates meet the educational criteria required for licensed mental health counselors in Kansas and Missouri.||$||#TD #MO|
|Midwestern State University (MPCAC) The MSU Texas Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology/Counseling Psychology (MACCP) graduates are eligible to sit for licensure as either professional counselors, psychological associates, or both. Students can expect to become knowledgeable in a variety of theories of personality, principles of assessment, and methods of therapy.||$||#TD #TX|
|Doane University (CACREP) The DU Master of Arts in Counseling is designed to develop highly competent mental health counselors who are skilled in the delivery of direct service, knowledgeable about current empirical and theoretical developments, and capable of critically evaluating clinical research. The Doane MAC program is designed to train students in the specialty area of Clinical Mental Health Counseling.||$||#TD #NE|
|Minnesota State University Mankato MSU Mankato offers a Master's in Clinical Psychology provides rigorous academic and applied training particularly suited to students who wish to pursue doctoral study. The Mankato Master's in Industrial/Organizational Psychology emphasizes research and consulting to prepare graduates for careers in management consulting, human resources, and market research.||$||#TD #MN|
|Liberty University The Liberty MA in Applied Psychology Online provides students with foundational training in the study of psychology with the goal of glorifying God by understanding and optimizing human functioning. The industrial organization concentration will train you to apply knowledge of psychology to understand human thinking and behavior in organizational settings. Liberty also offers a developmental concentration and a MA in Forensic Psychology.||$||#TD #VA|
|Loras College The LC Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology is tailored to meet the needs of working professionals and new graduate students. The curriculum is specifically designed for individuals who plan to become a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC) after completion of the program.||$||#TD #IA|
|John F. Kennedy University The JFKU MA in Sport Psychology students will learn from faculty who are pioneers in the field and push the boundaries in an ongoing effort to improve sport psychology through both research and practice. This program is offered on campus and online||$||#TD #CA|
|Delaware Valley University (MPCAC) The DelVal MA in Counseling Psychology cohort structure ensures small classes, personal attention and feedback, ethical development, and individualized clinical placements. Program tracks include social justice community counseling or child and adolescent counseling. Our students practice and refine their skills in our state-of-the-art counseling lab.||$||#TD #DE|
|Southern Illinois University Edwardsville SIUE offers a MA Degree in Clinical Psychology includes rigorous coursework in such areas as psychotherapy, psychological assessment, psychopathology, biopsychology, and research and statistics. It is intended for students who seek master's-level training appropriate for clinical work with primarily adult clients. Many of our graduates enter doctoral programs in clinical psychology, counseling psychology or other fields, either immediately after graduation or after some time in the field.||$||#TD #IL|
|Southern Illinois University Edwardsville The SIUE Master of Science in Clinical Child and School Psychology anticipated many developments in both school and clinical child psychology as it emphasizes prevention, the ecological/systems approach, and the consultative role of the psychologist. Further, the program focuses on evidence based practices, such as behavioral and cognitive interventions.||$||#TD #IL|
|Southern Illinois University Edwardsville The SIUE Master of Arts in Industrial/Organizational Psychology offers a rare blend of the scientist-practitioner model, requiring students to complete both a research-based thesis and several required field hours of practicum. The philosophy of our program is to provide the knowledge and skills required to analyze, understand and solve a wide variety of behavioral problems that occur in organizations.||$||#TD #IL|
|Concordia University Chicago The CUC MA in Psychology is widely respected for its ability to prepare graduates with the qualifications essential to pursuing a career in academic research and instruction of psychology. Students will find this curriculums rigorous combination of timely theory and hands-on research experience an ideal foundation for pursuit of careers in education, research, and mental health across both academic and institutional sectors.||$||#TD #IL|
|William Carey University The WCU Master of Science degree in Counseling Psychology is designed to prepare individuals for ministry and employment in a variety of fields: school guidance programs, community mental health centers, religious counseling centers, private practice, mental health institutions community based facilities, and pastoral care. Concentrations include: school counseling, Christian counseling, counseling, gerontology, child and adolescent counseling, and school psychometry.||$||#TD #MS|
|Union College UC offers a Master of Arts in General Psychology Online and a MA in Clinical Psychology Hybrid program. The General Psychology program is designed to prepare the student for further graduate study, teaching at the college level or for personal enrichment. The Clinical Psychology program is designed to develop effective masters-level practitioners and involve training in the delivery of psychological services.||$||#TD #KY|
|Salem State University (BACB) SSU offers a MS in industrial/Organizational psychology which prepares students for careers in human resources, organizational development, change management, and leadership development. SSU also offers a MS in Behavior Analysis which prepares students as basic or applied scientists in research and applied settings.||$||#TD #MA|
| Morehead State University (MPCAC) The MSU ||$||#TD #KY|
|Anna Maria College The AMC Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology program provides an integrated, comprehensive approach to training to help influence your career as a mental health professional. Electives include: Marriage and Family Counseling, Outreach Counseling with courses related to homelessness and poverty, Positive Psychology, Psychological Trauma, Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery, and more.||$||#TD #MA|
|Bridgewater State University (MPCAC) The BSU Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology offers specialization in clinical-psychotherapy, and can serve as your gateway into the field of human services or as a stepping-stone into a doctorate program. Students will gain a theoretical and practical understanding of the principles of psychology within the framework of a strong clinical emphasis.||$||#TD #MA|
|Saint Michael's College The St. Mikes Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology provides opportunities for the in-depth study and analysis of both the research tradition of academic psychology, as well as the theoretical and case study tradition of professional psychology. Vermont is one of only a handful of states that licenses psychologists at the Master's level for independent practice.||$||#TD #VT|
|University of Southern Mississippi (MPCAC) The USM M.S. in Counseling Psychology provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to become licensed professional counselors and to pursue doctoral education in psychology, if desired. Our program is modeled after the licensure requirements in the State of Mississippi. Utilizing a scientist-practitioner training model, our goal is to train counselors who are informed consumers of research.||$||#TD #MS|
|Salve Regina University (BACB) The SRU MA in Applied Behavior Analysis incorporates the six masters-level courses and practicum experience required by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) to qualify to sit for the national certification exam. Coursework such as ethics and professional conduct, measurement and data analysis, behavior change techniques, assessment and systems management prepares students for the national certification exam.||$||#TD #RI|
Top 25 Most Affordable Doctorate in Psychology Programs
|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (APA) The USU PhD in Clinical Psychology follows a scientist-practitioner model of training and the basic principles as established by the National Conference on Scientist-Practitioner Education and Training for the Professional Practice of Psychology. Training focuses on developing scientist-practitioners who have an in-depth understanding of the biopsychosocial factors affecting health in evidence-based practice, research, teaching, and public policy.||$||#NTD #MD|
|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences USU offers a PhD in Medical Psychology. Basic and applied approaches to health psychology and behavioral medicine are emphasized, focusing on the study of psychosocial, psychobiological, and behavioral factors in the etiology, prevention, and treatment of illness, substance abuse, and relationships between physical and mental health. The emphasis of this program is the training of scientists and educators in the fields of health psychology, behavioral medicine, and/or medical psychology.||$||#NTD #MD|
|Brigham Young University (APA) The BYU PhD in Clinical Psychology is a well-established, nationally visible program. Areas of emphasis include: Child, Adolescent, and Family Clinical Psychology, (2) Clinical Neuropsychology, (3) Clinical Research, or (4) Clinical Health Psychology. Adhering to the scientist-practitioner training philosophy, our goal is to prepare students with the knowledge and skills to be excellent clinical psychologists, equipped to pursue academic, research, or clinical careers.||$||#NTD #UT|
|Brigham Young University The BYU PhD in Psychology is for those who want more focused training in research, sometimes referred to as our Non-Clinical program. During the last two years of the program, students pursue specialized coursework and training in one of three emphasis areas: Applied Social Psychology, Cognitive and Behavioral Neurosciences, and Developmental Psychology. The program also offers a cross-area emphasis program to provide training in health psychology.||$||#NTD #UT|
|Brigham Young University (APA) The BYU PhD in Counseling Psychology prepares individuals to work in health service psychology, which is the integration of psychological science and practice in order to facilitate human development and functioning. Our program primarily prepares individuals for careers as licensed psychologists in counseling centers, clinics, and academic departments of colleges and universities. Some graduates also work in independent practice, educational settings, administration, research, consulting, and medical settings.||$||#NTD #UT|
|Jackson State University (APA) The JSU PhD in Clinical Psychology students are immersed into a curriculum anchored in the cumulative body of psychological knowledge, with a firm bsis in statistics, research design, and experimental methodology. The program develops a comprehensive knowledge base and teaches skills to improve the students' ability to effectively function as an emphirically-oriented clinical psychologist in diverse settings.||$||#NTD #MS|
|Minnesota State University Mankato (NASP) The MSU Mankato PhD in School Psychology offers individualized attention and hands-on experiences to prepare students to become certified school psychologists. The program has a strong focus on research, allowing students a wide range of professional options from practicing in K-12 schools or clinics, to teaching in university settings. The program is based on the scientist-practitioner model of training, in which research informs practice and practice informs research.||$||#NTD #MN|
|John F. Kennedy University (APA) The JFKU PsyD in Clinical Psychology prepares students to serve their communities in a variety of vital roles including clinician, program administrator, evaluator, consultant, educator, supervisor, assessor, and, perhaps most importantly, critical consumer of psychological research.||$||#NTD #CA|
|John F. Kennedy University The JFKU Master of Arts in Sport Psychology - Clinical Psychology PsyD Dual Degree prepares students to work in clinical settings as well as with athletes in a sport setting. This program provides a unique training opportunity with clinical clients, athletes, as well as athletes with clinical concerns.||$||#NTD #CA|
|Saint Mary's University of Minnesota (APA) The SMUMN PsyD in Counseling Psychology is student-centered and is attentive to the needs of the adult learner, preparing students for careers as licensed professional psychologists. The program emphasizes and integrates ethical practice, service to diverse and underserved communities, and evidence-based practices. There is a strong emphasis on individualized mentoring throughout the program.||$||#NTD #MN|
|University of Southern Mississippi (APA) The USM PhD in Clinical Psychology graduates are prepared to pursue careers in academia, research, mental health care delivery, or practice in public and private settings. We prepare our students first as scientists in psychology and then as practicing clinical psychologists. We strongly subscribe to a generalist approach to training but include concentrations in clinical child and adult psychology.||$||#NTD #MS|
|University of Southern Mississippi (APA)(NASP) The USM PhD in School Psychology primary objective is to prepare behavioral scientists who can apply their skills to the solution of a broad range of problems related to the processes of schooling. Post-bachelor's degree students first complete a Master's degree, including an empirical thesis, en route to the doctorate.||$||#NTD #MS|
|University of Southern Mississippi The USM PhD in Brain and Behavior offers research training in experimental psychology across several areas in cognitive, social, and quantitative psychology. Cognitive psychology areas emphases include research in perception, attention, language, and memory. Social psychology areas include research in evolutionary, cultural, health, and political psychology.||$||#NTD #MS|
|University of Southern Mississippi (APA)(MPCAC) The USM PhD in Counseling Psychology teaches the scientist-practitioner model. Students complete coursework which informs their research projects as well as prepares them for work in the in-house training clinic. The goals of the Counseling Psychology program are to produce psychologists who are insightful, emotionally mature, and display a high degree of professionalism.||$||#NTD #MS|
|North Dakota State University The NDSU PhD in Health/Social Psychology has objectives including: Foundation and Core courses in Health and Social psychology that provide in-depth training in these topics; Extensive training and courses in quantitative and research methods; Course experiences in breadth areas of experimental psychology; and more.||$||#NTD #ND|
|North Dakota State University The NDSU PhD in Visual and Cognitive Neuroscience purpose is to prepare students for careers in academic or research settings. Students will attain foundational and in-depth knowledge in visual and cognitive neuroscience by completing core courses in these areas. We select students for our program who have the interest and desire to be engaged in intensive, cutting-edge research with faculty members in our department.||$||#NTD #ND|
|Grand Canyon University (HLC) The GCU PhD in Psychology with an Emphasis in Cognition and Instruction explores and evaluates cognitive processes and information to develop the best instructional methods for 21st century postsecondary education. Students will study a range of topics relevant to the construction and analysis of learning outcomes, including social cognition and assessments.||$||#NTD #AZ|
|Rivier University The RU Combined PsyD in Counseling and School Psychology builds on existing MA and EdS programs at Rivier University in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and School Psychology that lead to licensure by the New Hampshire Board of Mental Health Practice. This approach to doctoral training prepares health service psychologists to work in a variety of professional settings as licensed psychologists and is consistent with the generalist approach to training entry-level psychologists.||$||#NTD #NH|
|University of Central Arkansas (APA) The UCA PhD in Counseling Psychology prepares counseling psychologists who are trained in evidence-based psychological services and research methods, are sensitive to individual, social, and cultural differences, are advocates for mental-health and personal growth throughout the lifespan, and are competent to practice in healthcare systems and in academia.||$||#NTD #AR|
|University of Central Arkansas (APA) The UCA PhD in School Psychology prepares students to provide and promote empirically-supported psychological services for children, youth, families, and schools. The program promotes quality school psychology services by emphasizing mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention at the individual, group, and systemic/programmatic levels.||$||#NTD #AR|
|Biola University (APA) The BU PhD in Clinical Psychology offers an integrated approach to the study of human behavior by bringing together the Christian faith and study of psychology. Students in the program are interested in combining clinical work with other psychological competencies, such as teaching and research. The BU PsyD in Clinical Psychology equips psychologists with the knowledge, training and enhanced professional skills to care for peoples psychological needs in a variety of settings.||$||#NTD #CA|
|Marywood University (APA) The MU PhD in Clinical Psychology trains students to provide state-of-the-art, ethical, humane and culturally sensitive clinical services to diverse populations. We teach students to be research-informed practitioners with general skills who pursue development in specific areas through electives, practicum sites, internships, and post-doctoral training.||$||#NTD #PA|
|Xavier University (APA) The Xavier Doctor of Clinical Psychology (PsyD) emphasizes the importance of a scientific foundation in psychology. The program is designed to prepare students for the general practice of health service; it also provides training in three areas of interest: children and adolescents, individuals with severe and chronic psychopathology, and health care psychology in medical settings.||$||#NTD #OH|
|Alaska Pacific University (NWCCU) The APU Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) in Counseling Psychology prepares culturally competent, doctoral-level psychologists who, through their practice, will help to alleviate suffering and empower individuals, groups, and communities towards health and well-being in a state with diverse populations and geographical challenges.||$||#NTD #AK|
|University of South Dakota (APA)(HFES) The USD PhD in Clinical Psychology program is committed to preparing clinical psychologists who will work effectively as scientist-practitioners within the culturally diverse world. The program is designed to provide a strong theoretical base that can be readily applied to various working environments and to prepare students for careers in business, industry and government. Students can choose to specialize in Human Factors or Clinical Psychology.||$||#NTD #SD|
Top Psychology Resources in the US
|National Institute of Mental Health NIMH is the lead federal agency for research on mental disorders.||#US|
|American Psychological Association The APA is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychologists in the United States.||#DC #US|
|National Alliance on Mental Illness NAMI is the nations largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness.||#US|
|Association for Psychological Science The APS is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of scientific psychology and its representation at the national and international level.||#DC #US|
|American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry The mission of AACAP is to promote the healthy development of children, adolescents, and families through advocacy, education, and research, and to meet the professional needs of child and adolescent psychiatrists throughout their careers.||#US|
|APA Psychologist Locator The Psychologist Locator makes it easy for you to find practicing psychologists in your local area. The Psychologist Locator lets you consider many factors in searching for psychologists, including their areas of specialization, gender, insurance accepted, languages spoken and much more.||#US|
|American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy AAMFT is the professional association for the field of marriage and family therapy.||#US|
|American Psychiatric Association APA is an organization of psychiatrists working together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental illness, including substance use disorders.||#DC #US|
|Bureau of Labor Statistics for Psychologists Information and statistics on psychologists such as: what they do, work environment, how to become one, pay, job outlook, and more.||#US|
|American Association of Community Psychiatry We are the national group of community psychology psychiatrists committed to promoting health, recovery, and resilience in people, families, and communities.||#US|
|Society for Neuroscience SFN is the worlds largest organization of scientists and physicians devoted to understanding the brain and the nervous system.||#US|
|National Association of School Psychologists NASP is a professional association that represents more than 25,000 school psychologists, graduate students, and related professionals throughout the United States and 25 other countries.||#US|
|American Psychological Association of Graduate Students APAGS aspires to achieve the highest quality graduate training experience for the next generation of scientific innovators, expert practitioners and visionary leaders in psychology.||#US|
|American Journal of Community Psychology Publishes original quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research; theoretical papers; empirical reviews; reports of innovative community programs or policies; and first person accounts of stakeholders involved in research, programs, or policy.||#US|
|Social Psychology Network Mission is to promote peace, social justice, and sustainable living through public education, research, and the advancement of psychology.||#US|
|APA and Affiliated Journals List of American Psychological Association and Affiliated Journals||#US|
|Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology SIOP is the premier membership organization for those practicing and teaching I-O psychology.||#OH #US|
|Behavior Analyst Certification Board BACB is a nonprofit corporation established in 1998 to meet professional credentialing needs identified by behavior analysts, governments, and consumers of behavior analysis services.||#US|
|Journal for Health Psychology A leading international peer reviewed journal that aims to support and help shape research in health psychology from around the world.||#US|
|Psych Web Dedicated to students and teachers of psychology. It contains career advice for psychology majors, a review of psychology and religion as an academic discipline, and a full-length, free introductory psychology textbook.||#US|
|Society for Personality and Social Psychology The worlds largest organization of social and personality psychologists. SPSP strives to advance the science, teaching, and application of social and personality psychology.||#DC #US|
|The American Journal of Psychology Has published some of the most innovative and formative papers in psychology throughout its history.||#US|
|PSI CHI, The International Honor Society in Psychology The Psi Chi mission is to encourage, stimulate, and maintain excellence in scholarship of the individual members in all fields, particularly in psychology, and to advance the science of psychology.||#US|
|American Psychiatric Association Publishing Is the worlds premier publisher of books, eBooks and journals on psychiatry, mental health and behavioral science.||#US #DC|
|Elsevier Cognitive Psychology Journal Specializes in extensive articles that have a major impact on cognitive theory and provide new theoretical advances.||#US|
|APA Divisions APAs 54 divisions are interest groups that represent subdisciplines of psychology (e.g., experimental, social, or clinical) while others focus on topical areas such as aging, ethnic-minorities or trauma.||#DC #US|
|APA Find a Psychiatrist Find a psychiatrist that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illness and substance abuse disorders. This is an APA opt-in database.||#US|
|APA Society of Clinical Psychology Represent the field of Clinical Psychology through encouragement and support of the integration of clinical psychological science and practice in education, research, application, advocacy and public policy, attending to the importance of diversity.||#US|
|Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies The ABCT is a multidisciplinary organization committed to the enhancement of health and well-being by advancing the scientific understanding, assessment, prevention, and treatment of human problems through the global application of behavioral, cognitive, and biological evidence-based principles.||#US|
|Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology ACEP members represent new and experienced mental health and helping professionals from around the world who use energy psychology methods and various forms of energy medicine in their practice.||#US|
|Elsevier Journals in Psychology Publishes journals covering Applied Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology and Social Psychology and Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience.||#US|
|Society for Judgment and Decision Making SJDM is an interdisciplinary academic organization dedicated to the study of normative, descriptive, and prescriptive theories of judgments and decisions. Its members include psychologists, economists, organizational researchers, decision analysts, and other decision researchers.||#US|
|American Board of Professional Psychology The ABPP serves the public by promoting provision of quality psychological services through the examination and certification of professional psychologists engaged in specialty practice.||#US|
|American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology The ABPN is dedicated to serving the public interest and the professions of psychiatry and neurology by promoting excellence in practice through certification and maintenance of certification processes.||#IL #US|
|Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations The mission of CREIO is to advance research and practice of emotional and social intelligence in organizations through the generation and exchange of knowledge.||#US|
|International Society of Political Psychology ISPP is an interdisciplinary organization representing all fields of inquiry concerned with exploring the relationships between political and psychological processes.||#US|
|Wiley International Journal of Psychology Advances psychological research of interest and relevance for the human condition around the world, and serves as the outlet for internationally relevant basic and applied research in scientific psychology.||#US|
|American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry AAAP are psychiatrists, faculty, medical students, residents and fellows and related health professionals committed to evidence-based clinical practices and research in the prevention, identification and treatment of substance use disorders and co-occurring mental disorders.||#US|
|Cognitive Neuroscience Society CNS is committed to the development of mind and brain research aimed at investigating the psychological, computational, and neuroscientific bases of cognition.||#US|
|International School Psychology Association ISPA has been proud to promote the work of school psychologists world-wide since the early 1970s. We provide training, resources, and a global community to school psychologists or those interested in the field.||#US|
|American Psychoanalytic Association APsaA is the oldest national psychoanalytic organization in the nation. APsaA as a professional organization for psychoanalysts, focuses on education, research and membership development.||#US|
|Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers The APPIC organization exists to provide a service to members who are interested in the training of doctoral and postdoctoral psychologists as well as the working with the National Match Program that places psychology doctoral students in internships.||#US|
|American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law AAPL is an organization of psychiatrists dedicated to excellence in practice, teaching, and research in forensic psychiatry.||#US|
|American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry The AAGP is a membership association of nearly 2,000 geriatric psychiatrists and other health care professionals in the United States, Canada, and abroad, dedicated to the mental well-being of older adults.||#US|
|American Psychiatric Nurses Association The APNA has grown to be the largest professional membership organization committed to the specialty practice of psychiatric-mental health (PMH) nursing and wellness promotion, prevention of mental health problems, and the care and treatment of persons with psychiatric disorders.||#US|
|Association for Applied Sport Psychology AASP is the leading organization for sport psychology consultants and professionals who work with athletes, coaches, non-sport performers (dancers, musicians), business professionals, and tactical occupations (military, firefighters, police) to enhance their performance from a psychological standpoint.||#US|
|Association for Behavior Analysis International Since 1974, ABAI has been the primary membership organization for those interested in the philosophy, science, application, and teaching of behavior analysis.||#US|
|Society of Behavioral Medicine SBM is a non-profit organization that brings together multiple independent disciplines: from nursing, psychology, and medicine to public health to provide new perspectives and progress on human behavior, health, and illness.||#US|
|Academy for the Psychoanalytic Arts The Academy's Mission is to advance the study of psychoanalytic epistemology, theory, practice, ethics, and education within a psychological framework consisting of philosophy, the arts, and the anthropic sciences.||#US|
|International Neuropsychological Society INS was founded in 1967 as a scientific and educational organization dedicated to enhancing communication among the scientific disciplines which contribute to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships.||#US|
|Psychology Tools Mission is twofold: to ensure that therapists worldwide have access to the high-quality evidence-based tools they need to conduct effective therapy, and to be a reliable source of psychological self-help for the public.||#US|
|Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues SPSSI is a group of over 3000 scientists from psychology and related fields and others who share a common interest in research on the psychological aspects of important social and policy issues.||#DC #US|
|Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards The ASPPB is the alliance of state, provincial, and territorial agencies responsible for the licensure and certification of psychologists throughout the United States and Canada.||#GA #US|
|International Association for Analytical Psychology The IAAP was founded in 1955 by a group of analysts who were close to C. G. Jung.||#US|
|APA Society of Counseling Psychology SCP brings together psychologists, students, and international and professional affiliates who are dedicated to promoting education and training, scientific investigation, practice, and diversity and public interest in professional psychology.||#US|
|International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology The aims of IACCP are to facilitate communication among persons interested in a diverse range of issues involving the intersection of culture and psychology.||#US|
|Journal of Educational Psychology Main purpose is to publish original, primary psychological research pertaining to education across all ages and educational levels.||#US|
|National Academy of Neuropsychology The mission of NAN is to advance neuropsychology as a science and health profession, to promote human welfare, and to generate and disseminate knowledge of brain-behavior relationships.||#US|
|National Register of Health Service Psychologists The largest credentialing organization for psychologists in the United States. Founded in 1974, the National Register certifies licensed psychologists as health service providers and reviews credentials for doctoral students.||#US|
|APA Society for the Teaching of Psychology STP promotes excellence in the teaching and learning of psychology. The Society provides resources and services, access to a global collaborative community, and opportunities for professional development.||#US|
|International Psychoanalytical Association The IPA exists to advance psychoanalysis. It is the worlds primary accrediting and regulatory body for the profession, and our mission is to ensure the continued vigor and development of the science of psychoanalysis.||#US|
|North American Society of Adlerian Psychology NASAP mission is to foster and promote the research, knowledge, training, and application of Adlerian Psychology, maintaining its principles and encouraging its growth.||#US|
|The National Psychologist This publication is intended to keep psychologists informed about practice issues and is published six times a year.||#US|
|American College of Neuropsychopharmacology ACNP is a professional, international organization of leading brain scientists.||#US|
|Association of Professional Behavior Analysts The APBA mission is to promote and advance the science-based practice of applied behavior analysis.||#US|
|International Union of Psychological Science IUPsyS works to promote the development, representation and advancement of psychology as a basic and applied science nationally, regionally, and internationally.||#US|
|Society of Experimental Social Psychology SESP is an international scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of social psychological research. Our typical members have Ph.D.s in social psychology, and work in academic or other research settings.||#US|
|American Board of Forensic Psychology The organization entrusted with that role regarding board certification in Forensic Psychology is the ABPP, which attests that the certified professional possesses a high level of professional competence in the specialty area.||#US|
|American Psychosomatic Society APS mission is to advance and integrate the scientific study of biological, psychological, behavioral and social factors in health and disease.||#US|
|APA Society for Community Research and Action The SCRA (Community Psychology) serves many different disciplines that focus on community research and action. Our members are committed to promoting health and empowerment and to preventing problems in communities, groups, and individuals.||#US|
|Articles, Research, & Resources in Psychology A psychology resource provides free access to a variety of articles from journals by Ken Pope, Ph.D||#US|
|Association for Women is Psychology AWP is a diverse feminist community of psychologists and allied professionals invested in the integration of personal, professional, and political power in the service of social justice.||#US|
|International Association of Applied Psychology The IAAP is the oldest international association of psychologists. Founded in 1920, it now has more than 3.000 members from more than 80 countries.||#US|
|American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology AACN Mission is to advance the profession of Clinical Neuropsychology through its advocacy of outstanding educational and public policy initiatives.||#US|
|American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists AACP provides a forum to share information for psychiatrists engaged in direct patient care, and to keep abreast of the latest scientific developments relevant to the practice of psychiatry.||#US|
|American Academy of Clinical Psychology The AACP is an organization of Board Certified psychologists in the specialty of Clinical Psychology who have joined together to promote high quality services in Clinical Psychology, through encouraging high standards and ethical practice in the field.||#US|
|American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training AADPRT mission is to promote excellence in the education and training of future psychiatrists and welcomes individual and institutional members to take advantage of its networking, educational offerings, and especially its annual meetings.||#US|
|Asian American Psychological Association The AAPA advocates on behalf of Asian Americans as well as advancing Asian American psychology.||#US|
|Society for Consumer Psychology The SCP is an organization dedicated to the study of how people relate to the products and services that they purchase or use.||#US|
|Society for Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Psychology One of the largest associations of psychoanalytic professionals and scholars in the world.||#US|
|Association of VA Psychologist Leaders AVAPL is a non-profit organization with a voluntary membership of psychologists with various leadership roles within the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA).||#US|
|Christian Association for Psychological Studies CAPS is a vibrant Christian organization with a rich tradition. Founded in 1956 by a small group of Christian mental health professionals, CAPS has grown to more than 1200 members in the U.S., Canada and more than 25 other countries.||#US|
|Eastern Psychological Association EPA was founded in 1896 and is the oldest of the regional Psychological Associations in the United States. Its sole purpose is to advance the science and profession through the dissemination of professional information about the field of Psychology.||#US|
|Midwestern Psychological Association MPA purpose is to share your research, make new friends, and connect with pyschological scientists from across the Midwest and the world.||#US|
|Society for Psychophysiological Research The SPR purpose is to foster research on the interrelationships between the physiological and psychological aspects of behavior.||#US|
|Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality Promotes psychological theory, research, and clinical practice to understand the significance of religion and spirituality in people's lives and in the discipline of psychology.||#US|
|Western Psychological Association The WPA was founded in 1921 for the purpose of stimulating the exchange of scientific and professional ideas and, in so doing to enhance interest in the processes of research and scholarship in the behavioral sciences.||#US|
|APA Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Our membership includes specialists in the fields of educational psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, individual assessment, measurement, program evaluation, psychometrics, qualitative inquiry, research interviewing, research methods and statistics.||#US|
|APA Society for the Psychology of Women Provides an organizational base for all feminists, women and men of all national origins, who are interested in teaching, research, or practice in the psychology of women.||#US|
|Federation of Assocations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences FABBS is a coalition of scientific societies that share an interest in advancing the sciences of mind, brain, and behavior. We communicate the importance and contributions of basic and applied research in these areas to policy makers and the public.||#US|
|Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice GJCPP is an online journal for practitioners of community psychology and community improvement.||#US|
|Society for Humanistic Psychology The society represents a constellation of "humanistic psychologies" that includes the earlier Rogerian, transpersonal and existential orientations as well as the more recently developing perspectives of phenomenological, hermeneutic, constructivist, feminist and postmodern (social constructionist) psychologies.||#US|
|Society for Sport, Exercise and Performance Psychology The Society represents the field of exercise and sport psychology; an interdisciplinary specialization that cuts across psychology and the sport sciences and seeks to further the clinical, educational and scientific foundations of exercise and sport psychology.||#US|
|Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy Is committed to preserving and expanding the theoretical and evidentiary base for psychotherapy and psychotherapeutic relationships, supporting life-long learning of psychotherapeutic skills, as well as making the benefits of psychotherapy accessible to all.||#US|
|Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science SIPS brings together scholars working to improve methods and practices in psychological science.||#US|
|Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine SBSM is an interdisciplinary organization committed to advancing the scientific approach to studying the behavioral, psychological, and physiological dimensions of sleep and sleep disorders and the application of this knowledge to the betterment of individuals and societies worldwide.||#US|
|Society of Biological Psychiatry The SBP vision is to advance understanding, investigation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders until they are eliminated as a cause of human suffering.||#US|
|Southeastern Psychological Association SEPA is a regional psychological association affiliated with the American Psychological Association (APA).||#US|
|Trauma Psychology Was founded to keep trauma and its effects at the forefront of the conversation within the American Psychological Association.||#US|
|American Association for Emergency Psychiatry AAEP is a multidisciplinary organization that serves as the voice of emergency mental health. The membership includes directors of psychiatric emergency services and emergency departments, psychiatrists, emergency physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, physician assistants, educators and other professionals involved in emergency psychiatry.||#US|
|American Psychology-Law Society The AP-LS enhances well-being, justice and human rights through the science and practice of psychology in legal contexts.||#US|
|APA Psychologists in Independent Practice The Community for Psychologists in Independent Practice. We offer tools and learning opportunities to increase your professional skill building and practice development across the span of your career.||#US|
|APA Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse Promotes teaching, research, and dissemination of information regarding the effects of drugs on behavior.||#US|
|Association for Research in Personality ARP is a scientific organization devoted to bringing together scholars whose research contributes to the understanding of personality structure, processes, and development.||#US|
|International Society for Psychological and Social Approaches to Psychosis ISPS promotes dialogue and multidisciplinary interaction, enriching our knowledge of the psychological and experiential aspects of psychosis and welcomes all those interested in psychological and social approaches to psychosis.||#US|
|Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association PRA is the premiere membership organization for the worldwide recovery workforce, advocating for the field on the Federal and State level here in the US, certifying professional expertise in psychiatric rehabilitation.||#US|
|Society for Philosophy and Psychology The purpose of the SPP is to promote interaction between philosophers, psychologists and other cognitive scientists on issues of common concern.||#US|
|Society for the Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity The SPSOGD focuses on the diversity of human sexual orientations by supporting research, promoting education and affecting professional and public policy.||#US|
|Southwestern Psychological Association SWPA works to promote and strengthen psychologys scientific, professional and educational facets. SWPA prides itself on serving the psychological community by providing access to scientific advances and professional development within a collegial atmosphere.||#US|
|The American College of Psychiatrists The ACP comprises more than 750 psychiatrists who have demonstrated excellence in the field of psychiatry, and achieved national recognition in clinical practice, research, academic leadership, or teaching.||#US|
|Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology APPCN mission is to offer the highest quality competency-based residency training in clinical neuropsychology with an emphasis on preparation for future specialty board certification.||#US|
|Community Psychology Topical Interest Group CPTIG promotes the values and methods of community psychology in evaluation and evaluation theory and practice in community psychology.||#US|
|Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research Founded in 1958 as a membership society for analysts sharing an interest in Freuds theory and technique, IPTAR continues to be a community committed to the lifelong study of psychoanalysis.||#US|
|International Association for Psychoanalytic Self Psychology IAPSP is an Illinois non-profit corporation comprising an international community of physicians, psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and nurse practitioners. While self psychology is a theory based on psychoanalytic principles, psychoanalytic training is not in itself a prerequisite for membership.||#US|
|Society for Mathematical Psychology SMP promotes the advancement and communication of research in mathematical psychology and related disciplines.||#US|
|APA Adult Development and Aging Strives to advance the study of psychological development and change throughout the adult years.||#US|
|APA Developmental Psychology Promotes research in the field of developmental psychology. Enhance undergraduate and graduate education in developmental psychology.||#US|
|Association for Academic Psychiatry The AAP AAP) focuses on education in psychiatry at every level from the beginning of medical school through lifelong learning for psychiatrists and other physicians.||#US|
|National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology NITOP is an annual conference for teachers of psychology who wish to explore new ideas that will enhance and broaden their teaching skills.||#US|
|Society for Media Psychology and Technology The Society focuses on the roles psychologists play in various aspects of the media, including, but not limited to, radio, television, film, video, newsprint, magazines and newer technologies.||#US|
|Society of Psychological Hypnosis Devoted to exchanging scientific information, advancing appropriate teaching and research, and developing high standards for the practice of hypnosis.||#US|
|American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology ABCN is a specialty board of the American Board of Professional Psychology and is responsible for administration of the examination for competence in the specialty of Clinical Neuropsychology.||#US|
|APA Educational Psychology This organization expands psychological knowledge and theory relevant to education, to extend the application of psychological knowledge and services to all aspects of education, to develop professional opportunities in educational psychology, to further the development of psychological theory through the study of educational processes, and to promote cooperation and joint action with others having similar or related purposes.||#US|
|APA Society for the History of Psychology An international organization of scholars, teachers, and members whose interests and scholarship are concerned with understanding the historical events and important people who have shaped the development of psychological thought and practice.||#US|
|National Alliance of Professional Psychology Providers Our Mission is to promote and advocate for the clinical practice of doctoral level psychology.||#US|
|Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System PCSAS is an independent, non-profit organization that provides rigorous, objective, and empirically based accreditation of Ph.D. programs that adhere to a clinical science training model.||#US|
|Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology SSCP purpose is to affirm and continue to promote the integration of the scientist and the practitioner in training, research, and applied endeavors. Its members represent a diversity of interests and theoretical orientations across clinical psychology.||#US|
|Society for Clinical Neuropsychology The SCN is a scientific and professional organization dedicated to the study of brain-behavior relationships, and the clinical application of that knowledge to human problems.||#US|
|Society for Occupational Health Psychology SOHP is a professional organization dedicated to helping workers worldwide become safer, healthier, happier, and more productive.||#US|
|Society for Social Neuroscience The mission of the society is to serve as an international, interdisciplinary, distributed gathering place to advance and foster scientific training, research, and applications in the field for the sake of humankind.||#US|
|Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology The STPP encourages and facilitates informed exploration and discussion of psychological theories and issues in both their scientific and philosophical dimensions and interrelationships.||#US|
|Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology SCCAP promotes scientific inquiry, training, professional practice, and public policy in clinical child and adolescent psychology as a means of improving the welfare and mental health of children, youth, and families in the context of a diverse society.||#US|
|American Board of Professional Neuropsychology ABN encourages the pursuit of excellence and recognizes competence in skills relevant to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.||#US|
|American Institute for Psychoanalysis AIP has been training mental health professionals for the clinical practice of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy since its establishment in 1941.||#US|
|American Psychiatric Association Foundation The APA Foundation focuses on the nations most pressing social mental health issues across our society. We complement the professional work of the APA by administering public outreach programs and support.||#US|
|American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy The ASAP was created to enhance psychological treatments combined with psychopharmacological medications.||#US|
|American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology ASCP was founded in 1992 to advance the science and practice of clinical psychopharmacology.||#US|
|APA Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology Our goal is to understand human performance and apply this knowledge to improve human-machine interactions.||#US|
|APA Behavior Analysis Promotes basic research, both animal and human, in the experimental analysis of behavior and the application of the results of such research to human affairs. Addresses contemporary issues related to the philosophy, research, and applied practice of Behavior Analysis.||#US|
|APA State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Association Affairs The goal of the SPTA is to provide you and your psychological associations with useful resources, services and benefits as well as being your voice for psychological association issues within APA.||#US|
|Association for Child Psychoanalysis ACP was founded in 1965 to provide a forum for the interchange of ideas and clinical experience in order to advance the psychological treatment and understanding of children and adolescents and their families.||#US|
|Association of Medicine and Psychiatry AMP was founded in 1991 by physicians concerned about the care of patients at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.||#US|
|Community Psychology Goes beyond an individual focus and integrates social, cultural, economic, political, environmental, and international influences to promote positive change, health, and empowerment at individual and systemic levels.||#US|
|Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry The mission of GAP is to bring together top psychiatrists across all disciplines and offer an objective, critical perspective on current issues facing psychiatry.||#US|
|International Council of Psychologists The mission of ICP is to advance the science and practice of psychology and to support the use of psychological knowledge to promote social health and justice.||#US|
|Masters in Psychology and Counseling Accreditation Council MPCAC mission is to accredit academic programs that provide science-based education and training in the practice of counseling and psychological services at the masters level, using both counseling and psychological principles and theories as they apply to specific populations and settings.||#US|
|Psychologists in Public Service Responds to the needs of the public in areas such as psychological practice, research, training, and policy formation. Provides a forum for its members to discuss common professional interests, to advocate for the mental health needs of the public, and to promote the use of evaluation and research in public research programs.||#US|
|Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice Is committed to the application of psychological knowledge to advocacy, social justice, service delivery and public policies affecting children, youth and families in a diverse and inclusive society.||#US|
|Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity and Race The major representative body for psychologists who conduct research on ethnic minority concerns or who apply psychological knowledge and techniques to ethnic minority issues.||#US|
|Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry The ACLP represents psychiatrists dedicated to the advancement of medical science, education, and health care for persons with comorbid psychiatric and general medical conditions, and provides national and international leadership in the furtherance of those goals.||#US|
|American Academy of Forensic Psychology AAFP is a non-profit organization of board certified forensic psychologists. Our mission is to contribute to the development and maintenance of forensic psychology as a specialized field of study, research and practice.||#US|
|Association of Women Psychiatrists The mission of AWP is to mobilize women psychiatrists to work together for quality mental health care of all persons, particularly women. AWP promotes inclusive leadership, professional development, and networking among women psychiatrists.||#US|
|International Society for Sports Psychiatry The ISSP aims to carry the science and practice of psychiatry to the athletic community, so that all people may enjoy the benefits of healthy participation in sports.||#US|
|Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology SBN is an interdisciplinary scientific organization dedicated to the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that regulate behavior.||#US|
|Society for Health Psychology Established to facilitate collaboration among psychologists and other health science and health care professionals.||#VA #US|
|Society for Police and Criminal Psychology SPCP is an eclectic professional organization that encourages the scientific study of police and criminal psychology and the application of scientific knowledge to problems in criminal justice.||#US|
|Society of Psychologists in Management SPIM is professional society made up of excellent and congenial psychologists who work as executives, managers, leaders and consultants with executives and managers in organizations and corporations in a variety of sectors, including business, government, health, community services and consulting and academics.||#US #IL|
|APA Society for Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Science Represents the interests and concerns of psychologists whose principal area of study or research lies within the field of general experimental psychology.||#US|
|APA The Society for General Psychology Promotes the creation of coherence among psychologys diverse specialties by encouraging members to incorporate multiple perspectives from psychologys sub-disciplines into their research, theory and practice.||#US|
|Health Psychology section of APA Division 17 Dedicated to the science and practice of counseling psychology in health related contexts||#US|
|Social & Affective Neuroscience Society SANS) is committed to research investigating the neural basis of social and affective processes. The Society was founded in 2008 and now comprises over 400 members.||#US|
|Society for Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology Members are devoted to studying the biology of behavior. Their focus is on behavior and its relation to perception, learning, memory, cognition, motivation, and emotion.||#US|
|Society for Couple and Family Psychology The societys mission is to expand both the study and practice of family psychology through education, research and clinical practice.||#US|
|Society for Environmental, Population and Conservation Psychology Members conduct research and advance theory to improve interactions between human behavior and environment and population.||#US|
|Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy A forum for psychologists interested in research, teaching and practice in group psychology and group psychotherapy.||#US|
|Academy of Psychological Clinical Science APCS is an alliance of leading, scientifically oriented, doctoral and internship training programs in clinical psychology and health psychology in the United States and Canada.||#US|
|American Association of Chairs of Departments of Psychiatry The AACDP represents the leaders of departments of psychiatry in all of the medical schools in the United States and Canada.||#US|
|APA School Psychology Our members primary professional interests focus on psychology with children, youth, families, and the schooling process. We offer a cohesive community for members to engage with one another regarding science, practice, and policy relevant to the field of school psychology.||#US|
|Asian Association of Social Psychology AASP mission is to provide scholars in Asia and the Pacific with a collaborative forum for the discussion, promotion, capabilities building, and publication of their research.||#US|
|Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry ADMSEP is an organization of psychiatric educators dedicated to the education of medical students in the psychiatry and behavioral sciences.||#US|
|Brunswik Society an informal association of researchers who are interested in understanding and improving human judgment and decision making. Members of the Society share an appreciation of the work of the psychologist Egon Brunswik.||#US|
|Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinities Students, early career psychologists, seasoned psychologists, mental health professionals, social workers, counselors, researchers, and other mindful persons can find a professional home at SPSMM. The society promotes the critical study of how gender shapes and constricts mens lives.||#US|
|Society of Pediatric Psychology The society aims to promote the health and psychological well being of children, youth, and their families through science and an evidence based approach to practice, education, training, advocacy, and consultation.||#US|
|Sports Neuropsychology Society SNS mission is to advance the field of sports neuropsychology, to generate and disseminate knowledge regarding brain-behavior relationships as it applies to sports, and to promote the welfare of athletes at all levels.||#US|
|American Academy of Pediatric Neuropsychology ABPdN is designed to develop specific academy-organized competency in pediatric neuropsychology.||#US|
|Association for Integrative Psychology The purpose of the AIP is to promote awareness and acceptance of complementary, alternative, and integrative approaches to human behavior as viable ways to facilitate change.||#US|
|International Society for Self and Identity ISSI is a scholarly association dedicated to promoting the scientific study of the human self.||#US|
|New England Psychological Association NEPA is dedicated to the advancement of psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare.||#US|
|Society of Addiction Psychology The SoAP is an active and diverse group of practitioners and researchers brought together by a common interest in promoting excellence in treatment, prevention, research, and professional training across the broad range of addictive behaviors. SoAP is interested in promoting the professional development of all our members, including students and early career psychologists.||#DC #US #AP|
|Society of Consulting Psychology Committed to applying psychological insights for the success and fulfillment of individuals, groups, and organizations. Members are contributing to the definition of consulting psychology and the methods used by consultants.||#KS #US|
|World Association for Personality Psychology WAPP is the association for those interested in or working in the areas of personality, individuality, intelligence, and individual differences.||#US|
|Black Psychiatrists of America The mission of the BPA is to address issues affecting the mental health of African people worldwide with special emphasis on Persons of African descent in the Americas and to provide a forum for continuing educations for those who provide psychiatric care to these underserved population groups.||#US|
|Rocky Mountain Psychological Association RMPA was founded in 1930 for the purpose of advancing psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare in the States of Colorado, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.||#US|
|Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology A quarterly peer-reviewed journal that emphasizes the publication of original research offering new knowledge to the fields of applied psychology, social psychology, work and organizational psychology, and personality psychology.||#US|
|APA Society for the Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts Committed to interdisciplinary scholarship, both theoretical and empirical, encompassing the visual, literary, and performing arts. We apply personality psychology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, perceptual, physiological, and cultural psychologies to diverse artists, styles, and epochs.||#US|
|Academy of Medical Psychology AMP is a membership organization for those who are interested or trained in medical psychology. AMP was founded in 1998 to provide a number of membership services, including continuing education, mentoring, recruitment of those wanting to become involved in medical psychology, and to promote research on the practice of medical psychology.||#US|
|Council of Professional Psychology Specialities The CoS is a non-profit joint venture to represent and support the development and functioning of recognized specialties in Professional Psychology.||#US|
|Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence The purpose of the society is to increase and apply psychological knowledge in the pursuit of peace. This young organization that welcomes professionals and students who wish to contribute to peace.||#US|
|Council of Applied Master's Programs in Psychology CAMPP is the only national organization primarily devoted to the appropriate recognition of master's-level applied psychology training programs and to the representation of these programs before other organizations whose polices and practices affect master's-level psychology.||#US|
|Society for Military Psychology Encourages research and the application of psychological research to military problems. Members are military psychologists who serve diverse functions in settings including research activities, management, providing mental health services, teaching, consulting, work with Congressional committees, and advising senior military commands.||#US|
|APA Rehabilitation Psychology Our mission is to lead the community of psychologists who, through research, practice, education and advocacy, enhance the well-being of people living with disability or chronic health conditions.||#US|
|Association of Physician Assistants in Psychiatry The primary goals of the Association of PAs In Psychiatry (APAP) is to collect, organize, and present information that will help to define and promote the unique professional skills of PAs who practice in the field of mental and psychiatry.||#US|
|Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities/Autism Spectrum Disorder A professional organization concerned with psychological research, professional education, and clinical services that address the needs of individuals with IDD/ASD across the life span.||#US|
|Psychoanalytic Research Consortium PRC is an independent, Not-for-Profit Corporation, whose purpose has been to collect recordings of psychoanalyses and other psychoanalytically informed psychotherapies.||#US|
|International Psychology Represents psychologists who are interested in promoting greater global awareness throughout the discipline.||#US|
|National Council of Schools Programs of Professional Psychology NCSPP is an organization composed of delegates from programs and schools of professional psychology. NCSPPs goal is to advance the development of the highest quality of graduate training in professional psychology.||#US|